Shenzhen | Wikipedia audio article

Shenzhen | Wikipedia audio article


Shenzhen (, Mandarin: [ʂə́n.ʈʂə̂n]
(listen)) is a major city in Guangdong Province, China; it forms part of the Pearl River Delta
megalopolis, bordering Hong Kong to the south, Huizhou to the northeast, and Dongguan to
the northwest. It holds sub-provincial administrative status,
with powers slightly less than those of a province. Shenzhen, which roughly follows the administrative
boundaries of Bao’an County, officially became a city in 1979, taking its name from the former
county town, whose train station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the
railway between Canton and Kowloon. In 1980, Shenzhen was established as China’s
first special economic zone. Shenzhen’s registered population as of 2017
was estimated at 12,905,000. However, local police and authorities estimate
the actual population to be about 20 million, due to large populations of short-term residents,
unregistered floating migrants, part-time residents, commuters, visitors, as well as
other temporary residents. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities
in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s and has been ranked second on the list of ‘top
10 cities to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet.Shenzhen’s cityscape results from its vibrant economy
– made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of
“reform and opening-up” in 1979. The city is a leading global technology hub,
dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley.Shenzhen hosts the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well
as the headquarters of numerous multinational companies such as JXD, Vanke, Hytera, CIMC,
SF Express, Shenzhen Airlines, Nepstar, Hasee, Ping An Bank, Ping An Insurance, China Merchants
Bank, Tencent, ZTE, Huawei, DJI and BYD. Shenzhen ranks 14th in the 2019 Global Financial
Centres Index. It has one of the busiest container ports
in the world.==Etymology==
The earliest known recorded mention of the name Shenzhen could date from 1410, during
the Ming Dynasty. Local Hakka people call the drains in paddy
fields “zhen” (圳). Shenzhen (深圳) literally means “deep
drains” as the area was once crisscrossed with rivers and streams, with deep drains
within the paddy fields. The character 圳 is limited in distribution
to an area of South China with its most northerly examples in Zhejiang Province which suggests
an association with southwards migration during the Southern Song Dynasty (12th and 13th centuries).Due
to the city’s growing economy, mainly in the technological industry, the city has been
referred by media as “China’s Silicon Valley”.==History==
The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed in the Shenzhen area are shards
from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty (third century BC) onwards,
the area around Shenzhen was a center of the salt monopoly, thus meriting special imperial
protection. Salt pans are still visible around the Pearl
River area to the west of the city and are commemorated in the name of Yantian District
(盐田, meaning “salt fields”).===Nantou===The settlement at Nantou was the political
centre of the area from early antiquity. In the year 331 AD, six counties covering
most of modern southeastern Guangdong were merged into one province or “jun” (郡) named
Dongguan with its administrative centre at Nantou. As well as being a centre of the politically
and fiscally critical salt trade, the area had strategic importance as a stopping off
point for international trade. The main shipping route to India, Arabia and
the Byzantine Empire started at Guangzhou. As early as the eighth century, chronicles
recorded the Nantou area as being a major commercial centre, and reported that all foreign
ships in the Guangzhou trade would stop there. It was also as a naval defense center guarding
the southern approaches to the Pearl River.Nantou was a major naval centre at the mouth of the
Pearl River in the Ming Dynasty. In this capacity it was heavily involved in
1521 in the successful Chinese action against the Portuguese Fleet under Fernão Pires de
Andrade. This battle, called the Battle of Tunmen,
was fought in the straits between Shekou and Nei Lingding Island.This area was also involved
in the events surrounding the end of the Southern Song dynasty (1276–79). The imperial court, fleeing Kublai Khan’s
forces, established itself in the Shenzhen area. Lu Xiufu, the then-chief minister, realized
all was lost and knew the Mongolian forces would soon take over the area, he preferred
suicide instead of the emperor being captured which might have brought shame to the dynasty. He jumped off a cliff with Emperor Bing, aged
7, the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty strapped to his back, killing both. In the late 19th century the Chiu or Zhao
(Zhao was also the Song Imperial surname) clan in Hong Kong identified that Chiwan,
an area near Shekou as the final resting place of the Emperor and built a tomb for him. The tomb, since restored, is still at the
same location.===Market town===Contrary to a common misconception of Shenzhen
being a fishing village prior to becoming a city, Shenzhen was a regional market town
that had been the county town of Bao’an since 1953.In November 1979, Bao’an County (宝安县)
was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province. It was renamed Shenzhen, after Shenzhen town. The administrative centre of the county stood
approximately around present location of the Dongmen.===Special Economic Zone===Shenzhen was singled out to be the first of
the five Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in May 1980. Initially, the SEZ comprised an area of only
327.5 km2 (126.4 sq mi) of southern Shenzhen, covering the current Luohu, Futian, Nanshan
and Yantian districts. The SEZ was promoted by Deng Xiaoping and
created to be an experimental ground for the practice of market capitalism within a community
guided by the ideals of “socialism with Chinese characteristics”.In 1982 Bao’an County was
re-established, though this time as a part of Shenzhen. The county was converted to become Bao’an
District, which was out of the Special Economic Zone. Shenzhen was promoted to a Sub-provincial
City in March 1983 and was given the right of provincial-level economic administration
in November 1988. With a population of 30,000 in 1980, economic
development has meant that by 2008 the city has had 12 million inhabitants.Shenzhen became
one of the largest cities in the Pearl River Delta region, which itself is an economic
hub of China, as well as the largest manufacturing base in the world.In 1996 and early 1997,
the Shenzhen Guesthouse Hotel in Shenzhen was home to the Provisional Legislative Council
and Provisional Executive Council of Hong Kong in preparation for the handover of Hong
Kong in 1997.By 2001, as a result of Shenzhen’s increasing economic prospects, increasing
numbers of migrants from Mainland China chose to go to Shenzhen and stay there instead of
trying to illegally cross into Hong Kong. There were 9,000 captured border-crossers
in 2000, while the same figure was 16,000 in 1991.On 1 July 2010, the Shenzhen Special
Economic Zone was expanded to include all districts, a five-fold increase over its pre-expansion
size. In August 2011, the city hosted the 26th Universiade,
an international multi-sport event organized for university athletes.==Geography==Shenzhen is located within the Pearl River
Delta, bordering Hong Kong to the south, Huizhou to the north and northeast, Dongguan to the
north and northwest. Lingdingyang and Pearl River to the west and
Mirs Bay to the east and roughly 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the provincial capital
of Guangzhou. As of the end of 2017, the resident population
of Shenzhen was 12,528,300, of which the registered population was 4,472,200, the actual administrative
population was over 20 million. It makes up part of Pearl Delta River built-up
area with 44,738,513 inhabitants, spread over 9 municipalities (including Macau). The city is elongated measuring 81.4 kilometers
from east to west while the shortest section from north to south is 10.8 kilometers. Over 160 rivers or channels flow through Shenzhen. There are 24 reservoirs within the city limits
with a total capacity of 525 million tonnes. Notable rivers in Shenzhen include the Shenzhen
River, Maozhou River and Longgang River.Shenzhen is surrounded by many islands. Most of them fall under the territory of neighbouring
areas such as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Huiyang District, Huizhou. But there are several islands under Shenzhen’s
jurisdiction, such as Nei Lingding Island, Dachan Island (Tai Shan Island), Xiaochan
Island, Mazhou, Laishizhou, Zhouzai and Zhouzaitou. (See List of islands in Shenzhen)===Climate===
Although Shenzhen is situated about a degree south of the Tropic of Cancer, due to the
Siberian anticyclone it has a warm, monsoon-influenced, humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Winters are mild and relatively dry, due in
part to the influence of the South China Sea, and frost is very rare; it begins dry but
becomes progressively more humid and overcast. However, fog is most frequent in winter and
spring, with 106 days per year reporting some fog. Early spring is the cloudiest time of year,
and rainfall begins to dramatically increase in April; the rainy season lasts until late
September to early October. The monsoon reaches its peak intensity in
the summer months, when the city also experiences very humid, and hot, but moderated, conditions;
there are only 2.4 days of 35 °C (95 °F)+ temperatures. The region is prone to torrential rain as
well, with 9.7 days that have 50 mm (1.97 in) or more of rain, and 2.2 days of at least
100 mm (3.94 in). The latter portion of autumn is dry. The annual precipitation averages at around
1,970 mm (78 in), some of which is delivered in typhoons that strike from the east during
summer and early autumn. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 0.2
°C (32 °F) on 11 February 1957 to 38.7 °C (102 °F) on 10 July 1980.==Cityscape====Politics==The politics of Shenzhen is structured in a parallel
party-government system, in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the
Communist Party of China Shenzhen Municipal Committee Secretary (currently Wang Weizhong),
outranks the Mayor (currently Chen Rugui). The party’s standing committee acts as the
top policy formulation body, and is typically composed of 11 members.==Administrative divisions==Shenzhen has direct jurisdiction over nine
administrative Districts and one New District: The Special Economic Zone (SEZ) comprised
only Luohu, Futian, Nanshan, and Yantian districts until 1 July 2010, when the SEZ was expanded
to include all the other districts, a five-fold increase over its pre-expansion size. Adjacent to Hong Kong in southern China, Luohu
is the financial and trading center of Shenzhen. Futian, at the heart of the SEZ, is the seat
of the Municipal Government. West of Futian, Nanshan is the center for
high-tech industries. Formerly outside the SEZ, Bao’an and Longgang
are located to the north-west and north-east, respectively, of central Shenzhen. Yantian is the location of Yantian Port, the
second busiest container terminal in mainland China and the third busiest in the world. Special Economic Zone Border
Land borders between Shenzhen SEZ and the rest of China existed before 2010. The border was known as 二线关 (pinyin:
èr xiàn guān). The border was set up since the establishment
of the SEZ. Initially, the border control was relatively
strict, requiring non-Shenzhen citizens to obtain special permissions for entering. Over the years, border controls have gradually
weakened, and permission requirement has been abandoned. On 1 July 2010, the original SEZ border control
was cancelled, and the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone was expanded to the whole city. The area of Shenzhen SEZ thus increased from
396 square kilometres (153 sq mi) to 1,953 square kilometres (754 sq mi). Since June 2015 the existing unused border
structures have been demolished and are being transformed into urban greenspaces and parks. On 15 January 2018, the State Council approved
the removal of the barbed wire fence set up to mark the boundary of the SEZ.Although the
Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have been extended to cover the whole of Shenzhen, colloquially
Shenzhen is still said to be separated into two areas, with the original four districts
comprising the SEZ before 2010 as “关内” (pinyin: guān nèi; literally: ‘within the
border’) and the rest known as “关外” (pinyin: guān wài; literally: ‘outside of the border’).==Economy==Shenzhen was the first of the Special Economic
Zones to be established by Deng Xiaoping and it showed the most rapid growth, averaging
at a very high growth rate of 40% per year between 1981 and 1993, compared to the average
GDP growth of 9.8% for the country as a whole. The economic growth later slowed after this
early breakneck pace. From 2001 to 2005, Shenzhen’s overall GDP
grew by 16.3 percent yearly on average. Since 2012, economic growth has slowed to
around 10% per year. In 2016, Shenzhen’s overall GDP grew about
8% per year. Shenzhen’s economic output is ranked 3rd among
the 659 Chinese cities (behind Beijing, Shanghai). The city was ranked 19th in the 2016 Global
Financial Centres Index. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index,
Shenzhen was ranked as having the 22nd most competitive financial center in the world.In
2016, Shenzhen’s GDP totaled $303.37 billion, putting it on par with a mid-sized Chinese
province by terms of total GDP. Its total economic output is higher than that
of small countries like Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, and Vietnam. Its PPP per-capita GDP was $49,185 (unregistered
migrant population not counted) as of 2016, on par with developed countries such as Australia
and Germany. In 2017, Shenzhen’s economic output totalled
$338 billion, surpassing that of Guangzhou, Hong Kong for the first time and ranked No.3
in China, only behind Shanghai and Beijing. Its new status will allow the city to become
the leading economic engine in China’s Greater Bay Area Initiative.The Shenzhen Stock Exchange
(SZSE) is a mutualized national stock exchange under the China Securities Regulatory Commission
(CSRC) that provides a venue for securities trading. A broad spectrum of market participants, including
540 listed companies, 35 million registered investors and 177 exchange members, create
the market. Since its creation in 1990, the SZSE has grown
with a market capitalization around 1 trillion yuan (US$122 billion). On a daily basis, around 600,000 deals, valued
at US$807 million, trade on the SZSE. Shenzhen is a major manufacturing center in
China. In the financial sector, large Chinese banks
such as Ping An Bank and China Merchants Bank have their headquarters in Shenzhen.The Port
of Shenzhen handled a record number of containers with rising trade increased cargo shipments
in 2005, ranking it as the world’s third-busiest port. China International Marine Containers, and
other operators of the port handled 16.2 million standard 20-foot (6.1 m) boxes last year,
a 19 per cent increase. Investors in Shenzhen are expanding to take
advantage of rising volume. Yantian International Container Terminals,
Chiwan Container terminals, Shekou Container Terminals, China Merchants Port and Shenzhen
Haixing (Mawan port) are the major port terminals in Shenzhen.In the 1990s, Shenzhen was described
as constructing “one high-rise a day and one boulevard every three days”. The Shenzhen’s rapidly growing skyline is
regarded among the best in the world. It currently has 59 buildings at over 200
meters tall, including the 599 m tall Ping An Finance Centre (the fourth-tallest building
in the world) and the 442 m tall Kingkey 100 (renamed to KK100), the 14th-tallest building
in the world.===Technology industry===Shenzhen’s most important economic sector
lies in its role as the headquarters for many of China’s high-tech companies. Shenzhen is home to many internationally successful
high-tech companies, including Huawei, Tencent, BYD, Konka, Skyworth, ZTE, Gionee, TP-Link,
DJI, BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute), OnePlus, etc. Taiwan’s largest company, Hon Hai Group, has
a large manufacturing plant based in Shenzhen. Many foreign high-tech companies have their
China operations centers located in the Science and Technology Park of the Nanshan District.Due
to its unique status as the first Chinese ‘Special Economic Zone’, Shenzhen is also
an extremely fertile ground for startups, be it by Chinese or foreign entrepreneurs. Successful startups include Petcube, Palette,
WearVigo, Notch and Makeblock. Shenzhen is also the product development base
of the hardware startup accelerator, HAX Accelerator (formerly HAXLR8R).====Industrial zones====
Shenzhen High-Tech Industrial Park (SHIP) was founded in September 1996. It covers an area of 11.5 km2 (4.4 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the zone include
biotechnology/pharmaceuticals, building/construction materials, chemicals production and processing,
computer software, electronics assembly & manufacturing, instruments & industrial equipment production,
medical equipment and supplies, research and development, telecommunications equipment. Shenzhen Software Park is integrated with
Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industry Park, an important vehicle established by Shenzhen Municipal
Government to support the development of software industry. The Park was approved to be the base of software
production of the National Plan in 2001. The distance between the 010 National Highway
and the zone is 20.8 km (12.9 mi). The zone is situated 22 km (14 mi) from the
Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport.===Economic cooperation with Hong Kong===Hong Kong and Shenzhen have close business,
trade, and social links as demonstrated by the statistics presented below. Except where noted the statistics are taken
from sections of the Hong Kong Government website.As of September 2016, there are nine
crossing points on the boundary between Shenzhen and Hong Kong, among which six are land connections. From west to east these include the Shenzhen
Bay Port, Futian Port, Huanggang Port, Man Kam To Port, Luohu Port and Shatoujiao Port. On either sides of each of these ports of
entry are road and/or rail transportation.In 2006, there were around 20,500 daily vehicular
crossings of the boundary in each direction. Of these 65 percent were cargo vehicles, 27
percent cars and the remainder buses and coaches. The Huanggang crossing was most heavily used
at 76 percent of the total, followed by the Futian crossing at 18 percent and Shatoujiao
at 6 percent. Of the cargo vehicles, 12,000 per day were
container carrying and, using a rate of 1.44 teus/vehicle, this results in 17,000 teus/day
across the boundary, while Hong Kong port handled 23,000 teus/day during 2006, excluding
trans-shipment trade. Trade with Hong Kong in 2006 consisted of
US$333 billion of imports of which US$298 billion were re-exported. Of these figures 94 percent were associated
with China. Considering that 34.5 percent of the value
of Hong Kong trade is air freight (only 1.3 percent by weight), a large proportion of
this is associated with China as well.Also in 2006 the average daily passenger flow through
the four connections open at that time was over 200,000 in each direction of which 63
percent used the Luohu rail connection and 33 percent the Huanggang road connection. Naturally, such high volumes require special
handling, and the largest group of people crossing the boundary, Hong Kong residents
with Chinese citizenship, use only a biometric ID card (Home Return Permit) and a thumb print
reader. As a point of comparison, Hong Kong’s Chek
Lap Kok Airport, the 5th busiest international airport in the world, handled 59,000 passengers
per day in each direction.Hong Kong conducts regular surveys of cross-boundary passenger
movements, with the most recent being in 2003, although the 2007 survey will be reported
on soon. In 2003 the boundary crossings for Hong Kong
Residents living in Hong Kong made 78 percent of the trips, up by 33 percent from 1999,
whereas Hong Kong and Chinese residents of China made up 20 percent in 2006, an increase
of 140 percent above the 1999 figure. Since that time movement has been made much
easier for China residents, and so that group have probably increased further still. Other nationalities made up 2 percent of boundary
crossings. Of these trips 67 percent were associated
with Shenzhen and 42 percent were for business or work purposes. Of the non-business trips about one third
were to visit friends and relatives and the remainder for leisure.After Shenzhen’s attempts
to be included in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge project were rejected in 2004, a separate
bridge was conceived connecting Shenzhen on the Eastern side of the Pearl River Delta
with the city of Zhongshan on the Western side: the Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge.====Qianhai====Qianhai, which means foresea in Chinese language,
formally known as the Qianhai Shenzhen-Hong Kong Modern Service Industries Cooperation
Zone, is “a useful exploration for China to create a new opening up layout with a more
open economic system.” A 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi) area located in western
Shenzhen, Qianhai lies at the heart of the Pearl River Delta, adjacent to Shenzhen international
airport. Strategically positioned as a zone for the
innovation and development of modern services, Qianhai will facilitate closer cooperation
between Hong Kong and mainland China, as well as act as the catalyst for industrial reform
in the Pearl River Delta. With the goal of loosening capital account
restrictions, Qianhai authorities have indicated that Hong Kong banks will be allowed to extend
commercial RMB loans to Qianhai-based onshore mainland entities. The People’s Bank of China has also indicated
that such loans will for the first time not be subject to the benchmark rates set by the
central bank for all other loans in the rest of China. According to Anita Fung from HSBC, “This new
measure on cross-border lending will enhance the co-operation between Hong Kong and Shenzhen
and accelerate cross-border convergence.”==
Demographics==Shenzhen has seen its population and activity
develop rapidly since the establishment of the SEZ as a magnet for migrants, beginning
with blue collar or labor intensive workers, giving the city the moniker of the world’s
factory. Shenzhen had an official population of over
10 million during the 2011 census. In addition, vast pools of non-local migrant
workers who may return to their home town/city on the weekends and especially major holidays
had lived in factory dormitories or construction worker oriented rapid-build prefab villages
during the week, numbering as high as 6 million by some speculative estimations. Imaginations ran wild about the true population
of the city, some suggesting as high as 20 million for the population at any given moment,
rather than relying on the count of true residents.. The city is just one forming a contiguous
urban area with southern Dongguan and Huizhou Cities, the southern fringe of the Pearl River
Delta (ex Hong Kong), yet other regions within the delta such as Guangzhou and the eastern
delta have not yet amalgamated with it, the links and land in between are yet to be built
up, though such links are being pursued ferociously. The population growth of Shenzhen follows
large scale trends; around 2012-13, the city’s estimated growth slowed down to less than
1 percent due to rising migrant labor costs, migrant worker targeted reforms, and moving
of eyesore factories out to periphery (many to Dongguan), nevertheless by 2015 an innovation
economy began gradually replacing the old factory floors as the city became a magnet
for a new crop of migrants, population outflow became inflow once again — this time young
fresh graduate, educated, metrosexual white collar types as well as the wealthy lured
to luxury high rises that are rapidly replacing the few remaining urban shanties, amidst calls
for their preservation due to loss of town character. Population trends were further promoted by
hard population caps imposed on other popular cities like Beijing and Shanghai, previously
the top picks for white collar workers. By the end of 2018, the population had been
estimated as just over 13 million by financially deep pocketed city hall (an increasingly reliable
statistic), with just under 500 thousand increase yoy.===Historic===
There had been migration into southern Guangdong province and what is now Shenzhen since the
Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279) but the numbers increased dramatically since Shenzhen
was established in the 1980s. In Guangdong province, it is the only city
where the local languages (Cantonese, Shenzhen-Hakka and Teochew) is not the main language; it
is Mandarin that is mostly spoken, with migrants/immigrants from all over China.===Other Statistics===
At present, the average age in Shenzhen is less than 30. The age range is as follows: 8.49% between
the age of 0 and 14, 88.41% between the age of 15 and 59, and 3.1% aged 65 or above.The
population structure has great diversity, ranging from intellectuals with a high level
of education to migrant workers with poor education. It was reported in June 2007 that more than
20 percent of China’s PhD graduates had worked in Shenzhen. Shenzhen was also elected as one of the top
10 cities in China for expatriates. Expatriates choose Shenzhen as a place to
settle because of the city’s job opportunities as well as the culture’s tolerance and open-mindedness,
and it was even voted China’s Most Dynamic City and the City Most Favored by Migrant
Workers in 2014. According to a survey by the Hong Kong Planning
Department, the number of cross-border commuters increased from about 7,500 in 1999 to 44,600
in 2009. More than half of them lived in Shenzhen. Though neighboring each other, daily commuters
still need to pass through customs and immigration checkpoints, as travel between the SEZ and
the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) is restricted. Mainland residents who wish to enter Hong
Kong for visit are required to obtain an “Exit-Entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong
and Macao”. Shenzhen residents can have a special 1 year
multiple-journey endorsement (but maximum 1 visit per week starting from April 13, 2015)
This type of exit endorsement is only issued to people who have hukou in certain regions.(See
Exit-Entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong and Macau.)===Metropolitan area===
The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 23.3 million.===Ethnic groups=======Koreans====As of 2007 there were about 20,000 people
of Korean origins in Shenzhen, with the Nanshan and Futian districts having significant numbers. That year the chairperson of the Korean Chamber
of Commerce and Industry, Kang Hee-bang, stated that about 10,000 lived in Overseas Chinese
Town (OCT). Shekou, the area around Shenzhen University,
and Donghai Garden housing estate had other significant concentrations. Donghai Garden began attracting Koreans due
to its transportation links and because, around 1998, it was the sole residential building
classified as 3-A. As of 2014 Donghai had about 200 Korean families.South Koreans began
going to the Shenzhen area during the 1980s as part of the reform and opening up era,
and this increased when South Korea established formal diplomatic relations with the PRC.In
2007 about 500 South Korean companies in Shenzhen were involved in China-South Korean trade,
and there were an additional 500 South Korean companies doing business in Shenzhen. In 2007 Kang stated that most of the Koreans
in Shenzhen had lived there for five years or longer.There is one Korean international
school in Shenzhen, Korean International School in Shenzhen. As of 2007 there were some Korean children
enrolled in schools for Chinese locals. As of 2014 spaces for foreign students in
Shenzhen public schools were limited, so some Korean residents are forced to put their children
in private schools. In addition, in 2007, there were about 900
Korean children in non-Chinese K-12 institutions; the latter included 400 of them at private
international schools in Shekou, 300 in private schools in Luohu District, and 200 enrolled
at the Baishizhou Bilingual School. Because many Korean students are not studying
in Korean-medium schools, the Korean Chamber of Commerce and Industry operates a Korean
Saturday School; it had about 600 students in 2007. The chamber uses rented space in the OCT Primary
School as the Korean weekend school’s classroom.===Languages===
Prior to the establishment of Special Economic Zone, the indigenous local communities could
be divided into Cantonese and Hakka speakers, which were two cultural and linguistic sub-ethnic
groups vernacular to Guangdong province. Two Cantonese varieties were spoken locally. One was a fairly standard version, known as
standard Cantonese. The other, spoken by several villages south
of Fuhua Rd. was called Weitou dialect. Two or three Hong Kong villages south of the
Shenzhen River also speak this dialect. This is consistent with the area settled by
people who accompanied the Southern Song court to the south in the late 13th century. Younger generations of the Cantonese communities
now speak the more standard version. Today, some aboriginals of the Cantonese and
Hakka speaking communities disperse into urban settlements (e.g. apartments and villas),
but most of them are still clustering in their traditional urban and suburban villages.The
influx of migrants from other parts of the country has drastically altered the city’s
linguistic landscape, as Shenzhen has undergone a language shift towards Mandarin, which was
both promoted by the Chinese Central Government as a national lingua franca and natively spoken
by most of the out-of-province immigrants and their descendants. Despite the ubiquity of Mandarin Chinese,
local languages such as Cantonese, Hakka, and Teochew are still commonly spoken among
locals. Hokkien and Xiang are also sometimes observed.Mandarin
native speakers, whose majority are out-of-province immigrants are found unwilling to learn Cantonese,
Hakka or Teochew, due to the perceived complexities of learning the dialects as well as Mandarin’s
official use, educational priority, and use as a lingua franca. However, in recent years multilingualism is
on the rise as descendants of immigrants begin to assimilate into the local culture through
friends, television and other media.===Religion===According to the Department of Religious Affairs
of the Shenzhen Municipal People’s Government, the two main religions present in Shenzhen
are Buddhism and Taoism. Every district also has Protestant churches,
Catholic churches, and mosques. According to a 2010 survey held by the University
of Southern California, approximately 37% of Shenzhen’s residents were practitioners
of Chinese folk religions, 26% were Buddhists, 18% Taoists, 2% Christians and 2% Muslims;
15% were unaffiliated to any religion. Most new migrants to Shenzhen rely upon the
common spiritual heritage drawn from Chinese folk religion. Shenzhen also hosts the headquarters of the
Holy Confucian Church, established in 2009.===Crime===
In general, Shenzhen is a relatively safe city. However, in districts such as Bao’an and Longgang,
the number of robberies, extortion, kidnapping, and fraud exceeds the national average. In the central part of the Luohu District,
especially in the neighborhoods around the Shenzhen Railway Station, Shenzhen Bus Terminal,
and the Luohu Commercial City Shopping Center, pickpocketing, prostitution, drug trafficking,
fraud, and the sale of counterfeit bills are common. In addition, Luohu is a major center for trade
in counterfeit goods and abundant in its nightclubs, bars, and karaoke salons, which not only does
it attract Shenzhen residents, but also residents from neighboring Hong Kong, which may attract
criminal elements. The Nanshan District has a large concentration
of foreigners, and is known for its abundance of prostitutes and beggars. Along with local gangs in Shenzhen, there
is a notable presence of triads: notably Wo Shing Wo, Big Circle Gang, Sun Yee On, 14K,
and Shui Fong. The level of corruption in the government
is usually high, as seen in the arrest of the then-mayor of Shenzhen, Xu Zongheng, for
accepting bribes in June 2009, as well as arrests and convictions of Li Yugo, the former
head of the largest state-owned construction corporation in the city, and Zhao Yutsun,
a customs officer of the city, for the same reasons.==Education==In 2009, there were 974 preschool educational
institutions in Shenzhen: 346 elementary schools with 589,500 students, 285 primary and secondary
schools with 316,000 students, and 20 secondary vocational schools with 47,000 students. There were also nine full-time higher education
institutions based in the city, one higher education institution with correspondence
education and 109 higher education institution branches (in addition, 52 Chinese and foreign
universities conduct training and research in the Shenzhen Virtual University Park). In total, 67,000 students studied at Shenzhen
universities (more than 600 thousand students were enrolled in correspondence courses).===Colleges and universities===
The largest university in Shenzhen is Shenzhen University, founded in 1982 and based in the
Nanshan District. Among the leading higher and secondary educational
institutions of the city are: Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU Shenzhen)
Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech)
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen Shenzhen University
Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School of Tsinghua University
Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen) Shenzhen Polytechnic
Shenzhen Technical University Shenzhen Institute of Technology
Shenzhen Radio and TV University Shenzhen Institute of Information Technology
Peking University HSBC Business School Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenzhen MSU-BIT University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University Antai Economics Management College, Shenzhen==
Transport=====
Public transport===Shenzhen has an extensive public transport
system, largely based on rapid transit, buses and taxis. Payment for most of these transportation methods
can be made by using a Shenzhen Tong card. In 2018, metro stations and buses added QR
code scanners, allowing users to pay with QR codes generated by WeChat mini programs.The
Shenzhen Metro system opened on 28 December 2004. Phase I had only two lines: the Luobao line
(now Line 1) and Longhua line (now Line 4). The Luobao line ran from Luohu (interchange
for Lo Wu MTR station and Shenzhen railway station) to Window of the World (Overseas
Chinese Town). The Longhua line ran from Huang Gang (now
Futian Checkpoint) to Shaonian Gong (now Children’s Palace). In June 2011, the Shenzhen Metro extended
Line 1 and Line 4. Line 1 runs from Luohu to Shenzhen Bao’an
Airport and Line 4 (now operated by Hong Kong MTR) runs from Futian Checkpoint to Qinghu. Also in June 2011, three lines of Phase II
opened before the 26th summer Universiade. They are Line 2 (from Chiwan to Xinxiu), Line
3 (from Yitian to Shuanglong), and Line 5 (from Qianhaiwan to Huangbeiling). The first batch of lines in Phase III, Line
11, opened in June 2016. Lines 7 and 9 opened at the end of 2016. By then the Shenzhen Metro currently has 8
lines, 199 stations, and 286 kilometres (178 mi) of lines in operation. This made the Shenzhen Metro one of the top
ten longest metro systems in the world. Several additional lines and extensions as
part of the second batch of Phase III expansion are under construction and will open by 2020. A number of Phase IV lines started construction
in January 2018. Bus services in Shenzhen began in 1975, and
now have expanded to a network consisting of near 1000 routes. Three franchised companies, Shenzhen Bus Group,
Shenzhen Eastern Bus and Shenzhen Western Bus operate most of the routes, and the remaining
routes are operated by a few private companies. Bus fares usually range from ¥2 to ¥10,
except for branches, where the fare can be ¥1 or ¥2, and privately-operated premium
services, which may be charged as much as ¥30. Two kinds of taxis are able to operate in
all areas of Shenzhen, distinguished by their color: Red taxis and Green taxis are fuel taxis united
together by governments in May 2017. Blue taxis are electric vehicles and fuel
surcharge does not apply on them.The taxi fare consists of 2 parts, ¥10 for up to 2
km(about 1.24 mile) first and ¥2.6/km(about ¥4.18/mile) for the distance remained. Extra ¥2 to ¥4 is needed for fuel taxis
as fuel surcharge according to local price of fuel.Shenzhen is a leader in electrifying
its public transportation. As of January 2019, it has the largest fleet
of electric buses in the world with more than 16,000 electric buses. Moreover, 99% of its taxis have also been
converted to electric vehicles.===Roads===Since February 2003, the road border crossing
at Huanggang and Lok Ma Chau in Hong Kong has been open 24 hours a day. The journey can be made by private vehicle
or by bus. On 15 August 2007, the Lok Ma Chau-Huanggang
pedestrian border crossing opened, linking Lok Ma Chau Station with Huanggang. With the opening of the crossing, shuttle
buses between Lok Ma Chau transport interchange and Huanggang were terminated. The planned Shenzhen–Zhongshan Bridge will
connect Shenzhen on the Eastern side of the Pearl River Delta with the city of Zhongshan
on the Western side. It will consist of a series of bridges and
tunnels, starting from Bao’an International Airport on the Shenzhen side. Construction of the proposed 51 km (32 mi)
eight-lane link is scheduled to start in 2015, with completion scheduled for 2021. Taxis are metered and come in 3 colors, red,
green and blue, all of which may travel throughout the city. Red taxis and green taxis united in May 2017. Blue taxis are electric-powered that costs
similar to the red and green ones, only having no fuel surcharge levied on. There are also frequent bus and van services
from Hong Kong International Airport to Huanggang and most major hotels in Shenzhen. A bus service operated by Chinalink Bus Company
operates from Kowloon Station on the Airport Express MTR line (below Elements Mall) direct
to the Shenzhen International Airport.As of 29 December 2014, Shenzhen banned passenger
vehicles with license plates issued in other places from four of Shenzhen’s main districts
during peak times on working days.===Railway===Shenzhen city has five large railway stations
located in different parts of the city to service destinations in different directions. The oldest of these, the Shenzhen railway
station, is located at the junction of Jianshe Road, Heping Road and Renmin Nan Road and
mostly services medium-speed long distance trains and provides links to different parts
of China. There are frequent high speed trains to Guangzhou,
as well as long-distance trains to Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Jiujiang, Maoming, Shantou
and other destinations. The trains from Hong Kong’s Hung Hom MTR station
to the Lo Wu and Lok Ma Chau border crossings take 43 minutes and 45 minutes, respectively. Shenzhen West railway station is located in
Qianhai, Nanshan. This station is used for a small number of
long distance trains, such as ones to Hefei.Shenzhen North railway station opened in 2011 in Longhua. The station is currently handling high-speed
trains to Guangzhou South, Guangzhou North, Changsha, Wuhan, Beijing and intermediate
stations on the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong HSR.Shenzhen East railway station was
opened in December 2012. It was originally called Buji station after
the suburb it is located and was a Grade 3 station along the Guangshen railway with no
passenger services. Now after massive renovations, it currently
handles mostly regional rail services.Pingshan railway station was completed in 2013 to serve
high-speed trains on the Xiamen–Shenzhen HSR which opened in 2013. Futian railway station was completed by the
end of 2015 and began to operate high-speed trains to Hong Kong in 2018. It is completely underground, located in the
centre of its namesake Futian District. The central location means it is the focal
point for most high-speed train services on the Beijing-Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong express
rail link route which began plying since 23 September 2018. Connection to West Kowloon Railway Station
in Hong Kong which was completed in late 2018, allowed for 15 minute cross-border train journeys.===Air===Donghai Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines and Jade
Cargo International are located at Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport. The airport is 35 kilometres (22 miles) from
central Shenzhen and connects the city with many other parts of China, and serves domestic
and international destinations. The airport also serves as an Asian-Pacific
cargo hub for UPS Airlines. Shenzhen Donghai Airlines has its head office
in the Shenzhen Airlines facility on the airport property. SF Airlines has its headquarters in the International
Shipping Center.Shenzhen is also served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed
passengers can take ferries from the Shekou Cruise Centre and the Fuyong Ferry Terminal
to the HKIA Skypier. There are also coach bus services connecting
Shenzhen with HKIA.===Ferries===Shenzhen is connected with Hong Kong (city
and airport), Zhuhai and Macau through ferries that leave from and arrive at the Shekou Cruise
Center. Fuyong Passenger Terminal in Bao’an near the
airport provide services to and from Hong Kong (Hong Kong International Airport) and
Macau (Taipa Temporary Ferry Terminal and Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal)Additionally,
Shenzhen is the third largest container port in the world. The city’s 260-kilometre (162 mi) coastline
is divided by the main landmass of Hong Kong (namely the New Territories and the Kowloon
Peninsula) into two halves, the eastern and the western. Shenzhen’s western port area lies to the
east of Lingdingyang in the Pearl River Estuary and possesses a deep water harbour with superb
natural shelters. It is about 20 nautical miles (40 km) from
Hong Kong to the south and 60 nautical miles (110 km) from Guangzhou to the north. By passing Pearl River system, the western
port area is connected with the cities and counties in Pearl River Delta networks; by
passing On See Dun waterway, it extends all ports both at home and abroad.===Connection with Hong Kong===On the border between Shenzhen and Hong Kong,
there are six checkpoints, including two in the railway stations (they both require passengers
to walk). In 2006, about 20.5 thousand vehicles crossed
the border in both directions daily, of which 65% accounted for trucks, 27% for cars, and
the rest — buses (trucks carried 17 thousand containers a day, while the port of Hong Kong
handled 23 thousand containers in a day). The busiest border crossings between Shenzhen
and Hong Kong were the Huanggang Port (Futian), Futian Port (Futian) and Shatoujiao Port (Yantian)
complexes, which accounted for 76%, 18%, and 6% of traffic, respectively (since February
2003, the Huanggang Port complex was work around the clock). Also in 2006, the average daily passenger
traffic across the border exceeded 200 thousand people in both directions, of which 63% of
traffic came from Luohu Port (Lohu) and 33% to Huanggang Port (78% of those crossing the
border were Hong Kong citizens, 20% – citizens of China and 2% – citizens of other countries). In total, in 2006, 153 million people and
14.3 million cars passed through various border points.==Architecture==The large-scale construction work carried
out in Shenzhen over the past three decades almost completely destroyed some of the historical
architecture that was prevalent in the city before its status of being a special economic
zone. Some of the historical buildings in the city
are either reconstructions or new models.Despite this, there are still a good number of historical
buildings in Shenzhen, primarily in the Nanshan District. Chiwan Fort is located on a small seaside
hill in the Nanshan District. Today, what is left only represents a fragment
of the large fortress, as it was partially destroyed by the British during the Opium
Wars. Tianhou Temple in the Nanshan District is
dedicated to the goddess Mazu, a tutelary deity for fishermen and sailors. According to legend, the temple was founded
in 1410 by Admiral Zheng He after his fleet survived a strong storm in the Pearl River
Delta. The temple is repeatedly rebuilt and repaired. Part of the temple was converted to a museum,
but the rest still continues to function as a religious building. The tomb of the last emperor of the Southern
Song Dynasty, Zhao Bing, is located in the Nanshan district. The modern tomb dates back to the end of the
19th century, when a Hong Kong clan announced one of the imperial tombs after a long search,
though this is disputed by historians. The tomb was reconstructed at the beginning
of the 20th century, but later it fell into neglect until it was restored again in the
1980s. Dapin Fortress is located in the eastern part
of the city, in the same area. It was built in 1394 to protect the coast
from pirates and in 1571 suffered a long siege of Japanese corsairs. It later turned into a typical town during
the Qing Dynasty, and during the First Opium War, the fortress garrison participated in
the fight against the British. Walls and gates, narrow streets, temples,
and the residence of the commandant in the fortress are still preserved today. There is an old fortified Hakka village in
the Longgang District, whose the architectural features of which are complemented by the
Hakka Culture Museum. The old town of Nantou (or Xin’an), located
in the Nanshan District, has several historical sites dating back to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. From the 4th century, there existed a significant
city, but today most of the old buildings have been replaced by modern buildings. However, there are still a few historical
buildings, such as fortress walls and gates dating back to the Ming period, the Guandi
Temple (Guan Yu), some military and civilian buildings (for example, the residence of officials,
the shop, and the opium house), and several streets.The tallest building in Shenzhen is
the 599-meter, 115 floor Ping An Finance Centre, which is also the second tallest in China
and the fourth tallest building in the world. The second-tallest building is the Kingkey
100, rising 441.8 metres (1,449 ft) and containing 100 floors of office and hotel spaces. Shenzhen is also the home to the Shun Hing
Square (Diwang Building), the tallest in Asia (if the antenna is taken into account) when
it was built in 1996. Most of the city’s skyscrapers are concentrated
in Nanshan, Luohu and Futian districts. SEG Plaza, in Huaqiangbei, is also a noted
landmark at a height of 356 meters (291.6 meters to roof-top). Guomao Building was furthermore the tallest
building in China when it was completed in 1985.There is a significant number of supertalls
either proposed, approved or under construction that are well over 300 m (984 ft) in Shenzhen. Ones that have been completed or topped out
since 2014 include the China Resources Headquarters, Riverfront Times Square, China Chuneng Tower,
Hanking Center, Hon Kwok City Center, Chang Fu Jin Mao Tower, Zhongzhou Holdings Financial
Center, East Pacific Business Center, One Shenzhen Bay Tower 7 and Shum Yip Upperhills,
among others. There were more skyscrapers completed in Shenzhen
in the year 2016 than in the whole of the USA and Australia combined, such is the rate
at which the skyline is being transformed.==Parks and recreation=====
Parks and gardens===Shenzhen offers free admission to over of
its twenty public city parks such as People’s Park, Lianhuashan Park, Lizhi Park, Zhongshan
Park, and Wutongshan Park. The Xianhu Botanical Garden (仙湖; ‘Fairy
Lake’), founded in 1982, is spread around the lake of the same name in the Luohu District
on an area of 590 hectares. On one of the hills of the garden is Hunfa
Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in Shenzhen, which was built in 1985 on the site of an
older shrine. Around the lake are a pagoda, tea houses,
pavilions, the Museum of Paleontology, a garden of medicinal plants and an azalea garden. Wutongshan National Park (梧桐山) is spread
around the mountain of the same name in the Luohu District. From the observation deck, there is a view
of the Shenzhen skyline as well as Hong Kong and the surrounding bay, and on the next peak
there is a transmission tower of a local television station. Lianhuashan Park (莲花山; Lotus Hill) is
located on the territory of 150 hectares in the Futian District. At the top of the mountain is a large bronze
statue of Deng Xiaoping. The Shenzhen Garden and Flower Exposition
Center, established in the Futian District in 2004 for the International Garden Exhibition,
has many gardens of various styles, artificial ponds and waterfalls, a pagoda, pavilions,
and statues. The Shenzhen Bay Park opened in 2011 which
included the nearby Mangrove Park. There are several thematic recreation areas
and attractions, and along the 9-kilometer-long coastal strip there is an embankment. The Mangrove Ecopark was established in 2000
in the Futian District and at that time was the smallest national park in China. A large group of birds migrate to the ecopark
in the mangroves on an area of 20.6 hectares in a 9-kilometer coastal zone of the Shenzhen
Bay. The Shenzhen Safari Park in the Nanshan District
combines a zoo and a large zoological center on a territory of 120 hectares. Xili Lake Resort (西丽湖), located in the
Nanshan District, has a park with springs and waterfalls stretching around the lake,
surrounded by a canopy, and a pagoda and a pavilion located on the top of Xili Mountain. Zhongshan Park (中山), located in the Nanshan
District, is the city’s oldest park. It has several artificial lakes and ponds,
an old city wall dating back to the 14th century, and many sculptures and monuments, including
one of Sun Yat-sen. The Yangtai Mountain Forest Park is located
around the 500-meter Yangtai Mountain (羊台山) in the Bao’an District. Nearby the mountain is Shiyan Lake (石岩湖),
which became a popular place of Xin’an County in the 16th century. It is famous for its several indoor and outdoor
pools with hot thermal waters.===Theme parks===Some of Shenzhen’s most prominent themes parks
are part of Overseas Chinese Town (OCT), a colloquial name for parks mostly located in
the Nanshan District owned by OCT Enterprises and classified as an AAAAA scenic area by
the China National Tourism Administration, such as the Window of the World and the Splendid
China Folk Village. Opened in 1994, the Window of the World has
about 130 reproductions of some of the most prominent tourist attractions in Shenzhen
squeezed into 48 hectares (118 acres), as well as hosting various festivals and performances. The Splendid China Folk Village has many miniature
versions of the main architectural landmarks of China and buildings with styles of all
56 ethnic groups of China, and hosts numerous cultural festivals and shows. Happy Valley (欢乐谷), opened in 1998,
has attractions and sports zones organized into zones such as Spanish Square and Cartoon
City, and also hosts various shows. OCT East is the only OCT development located
outside of the Nanshan District. Located in the Yantian District, OCT East
is an events hotspot, featuring the Ecoventure Valley (大侠谷) and the Tea Stream Resort
Valley (茶溪谷) theme parks, three scenic themed towns, two 18-hole golf courses and
eight themed hotels. OCT East was joined in 2012 by the OCT Bay
(欢乐海岸; reamed OCT Harbor) development, which brought more attractions including an
exhibition center, hotels and residences, an artificial beach called CoCo Beach, and
an IMAX cinema. Other theme parks include Shekou Sea World
(海上世界), a western-style entertainment complex built around a former French ferry
now known as Minghua (明华), which was cemented into the ground to become a hotel complex,
and Xiaomeisha Sea World, which opened in 1998 on Xiaomeisha Beach (小梅沙; ‘small
mesa’) in the Yantian District, and includes numerous attractions and aquariums such as
the Ocean Theater, the Museum of Science and Technology, the Aircraft Model Museum, the
World of Ocean Dreams, the Ocean Garden, the Garden of Poseidon, and the Island of Turtles.Minsk
World is a military-themed park in the Yantian District based around the decommissioned aircraft
carrier Minsk. Initially popular, attracting more than five
million visitors and generated ¥450 million in revenue in 2005, the park closed in 2016
after a decline in visitor numbers. Minsk was moved to Zhoushan for repairs, after
which it will be moved to another theme park in Nantong, Jiangsu and the land that was
used for Minsk World would be reclaimed by the local government.===Beaches===Shenzhen has several beaches: Dameisha (大梅沙;
‘big mesa’) and Xiaomeisha (小梅沙; ‘small mesa’) in the Yantian District, and Jinshawan
(金沙湾; ‘golden sands bay’), Nan’ao (南澳; ‘southern inlet’), and Xichong (西冲) in
Dapeng Peninsula (in the vicinity of Dapeng New District, which is administered by the
Longgang District).==Culture==
Over 170 different festivals and fairs are held annually in Shenzhen, including the Shenzhen
International Tourism Cultural Festival, the Beach Music Festival, the Window of the World
International Beer Festival, and the Overseas Chinese Town Carnival. The city has more than 630 libraries and bookstores,
with the Shenzhen Library, the Shenzhen Book City, the Shenzhen Scientific-Technical Library,
the Library of the Shenzhen University, the Shenzhen Children’s Library, and the Luohu
District Library being among the largest. Cultural facilities such as the Shenzhen Cultural
Center, the Shenzhen Convention and Exhibition Center, and the Shenzhen Children’s Palace
are located in the Futian District, which is considered the cultural center of the city. Overseas Chinese Town is a cluster of cultural
theme parks centralized mainly around the Nanshan District. Dafen Village in the Longgang District is
famous a noted art village known primarily for the production of replicas of masterworks
and outsourcing of original art creation. The Shenzhen Symphony Orchestra (深圳交响乐团),
founded in 1982, is a noted orchestra that performs in the Shenzhen Grand Theater. Due to investments made by Hongkongers in
the 1980s, Shenzhen is today China’s largest center for the production of cartoons, animation,
and computer game software.===Cuisine===As with Hong Kong and the surrounding Guangdong
province, the main cuisine of Shenzhen is Cantonese. However, due to the recent growth of migrants
to the city, Shenzhen also hosts a diverse array of cuisines, from Chinese cuisines such
as Chaozhou cuisine, Hakka cuisine, Sichuan Cuisine, Hu Cuisine, and Xiang Cuisine, as
well as foreign cuisines such as Korean, Japanese, and French. The Yantian District is known for its Chaozhou-based
and Hakka-based seafood, with restaurants lined up along the coastline. Some recreational areas in Shenzhen such as
Xianhu Botanical Garden, Donghu Park, and Xiaomeisha, host barbecues where visitors
bring their own food. Shenzhen also has its own tea culture.===Museums and exhibition centers===Guan Shanyue Art Museum
Hakka Culture Museum He Xiangning Art Museum
Museum of Ancient History of Nantou OCT Art and Design Gallery
OCT Contemporary Art Terminal Shenzhen Convention and Exhibition Center
Shenzhen Civic Center Shenzhen Cultural Center, where the city’s
Central Music Hall and library are located Shenzhen Museum
Shenzhen Museum of Art Shenzhen Science Museum
Shenzhen Shekou Maritime Museum opened to the public on Thursday, June 29===Theaters and concert halls===Shenzhen Cantonese Opera Company
Shenzhen Concert Hall Shenzhen Grand Theater
Shenzhen Poly Theatre C: Union==
Media==Shenzhen has an advanced public media network,
boasting one radio station, two TV stations, three broadcasting and TV centers, 19 cable
broadcasting and TV sub-stations. In Shenzhen, there are 14 newspapers, one
comprehensive publishing house, three video-audio products publishing houses, 88 bureaus of
inland and Hong Kong media organizations, 40 periodicals, and about 200 kinds of in-house
publications of which the majority belong to enterprises. The most prominent media companies in Shenzhen
are the Shenzhen Media Group, the Shenzhen Press Group, China Entertainment Television
(CETV), and Phoenix Television branch iFeng.Shenzhen News (深圳晚报, sznews.com) is a Chinese-language
newspaper owned by the Shenzhen Press Group that serves as Shenzhen’s main online new
source. Shenzhen Daily is an English-language news
outlet for Shenzhen. It also covers local, national and international
news. ShekouDaily.com is an online media outlet
providing news and resources that focus on the Shekou sub-district in Nanshan District
of Shenzhen.==Sports==Shenzhen has two local football clubs, Shenzhen
F.C. and Shenzhen Renren F.C., who both play home games at the 40,000 capacity Bao’an Stadium. Shenzhen F.C. was one of the earliest professional
football clubs in Guangdong, originally owned by memberships, later turned to shareholding. The team won Chinese Super League title in
2004 season despite severe financial problems leaving players unpaid for seven months. The team currently plays in the Chinese Super
League, the highest tier of Chinese football competition system. Shenzhen Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium
that hosts many events. The stadium is located in Futian District
and has a capacity of 32,500. It was built in June 1993, at a cost of 141
million RMB. The 26th Summer Universiade was held in Shenzhen
in August 2011. Shenzhen has constructed the sports venues
for this first major sporting event in the city.Shenzhen Dayun Arena is a multipurpose
arena. It was completed in 2011 for the 2011 Summer
Universiade. It is used for the basketball, ice hockey
and gymnastics events. The arena is the home of the Shenzhen KRS
Vanke Rays of the Canadian Women’s Hockey League. Shenzhen is also a popular destination for
skateboarders from all over the world, due to the architecture of the city and its lax
skate laws.The Shenzhen Bay Sports Centre will be one of the venues at the 2019 FIBA
Basketball World Cup.From 2019 to 2028 Shenzhen is hosting the WTA Finals, a major annual
professional tennis tournament for the world’s most top-ranked female players.==Sister cities==
Shenzhen has been very active in cultivating sister city relationships. In October 1989, Shenzhen Mayor Li Hao and
a delegation traveled to Houston to attend the signing ceremony establishing a sister
city relationship between Houston and Shenzhen. Houston became the first sister city of Shenzhen. Up to 2015, Shenzhen has established sister
city relationship with 25 cities in the world.==See also==
Index of Shenzhen-related articles Administrative divisions of the People’s Republic
of China Economy of China
List of twin towns and sister cities in China==Notes

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