Neuroscience of ADHD

Neuroscience of ADHD


Everyone gets bored at work or at school. But for some folks, staying focused on a task
is really difficult. And it’s not because they’re lazy or not
intelligent. Sometimes, having a hard time focusing can
be caused by an underlying neurological condition. Like ADHD. ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,
is sometimes perceived as a “made up” condition that lets doctors and parents overmedicate
energetic little Jimmy to make him easier to handle. But ADHD has been around for a long time. Its symptoms were first described in the early
1900s. And it’s a real condition that affects a
lot of people, including some of my friends! My name is Steven Brown. I’m a 36 year old Caucasian male. I’m a microbiologist and bioinformaticist
at UCSD. I’m a postdoc right now. Married to Cindy. I’m Cindy. I am 32. I am a medical student at UC San Diego. I’m in the last six months of my 8-year MD/PhD
program. And I guess I have ADHD. Well, I don’t actually know when I was first
diagnosed. I know when I was first diagnosed most recently
that I’ve been treated for. It was five or six years ago. I had just switched to an academic postdoc
position from a brief stint working in the finance industry after graduate school. And I felt like I was having trouble staying
focused on what I was doing. That I was kind of switching tasks a little
too often. Like, I could just stay focused and get one
thing more done, but instead I would jump between things. I tried a few different systems where I would
schedule half an hour, set a timer, work on the thing for half an hour. But I just kept finding that, even when I
was trying to stay focused in that half an hour, that I was fighting this really intense
battle in my own head. It was just much harder than it felt like
it should be. So, I made an appointment with a psychiatrist
and he said, you know, based on just that first conversation, that I had “garden vareity”ADHD. Without the hyperactivity, so I guess it’s
the inattentive subtype. So my reaction to the diganosis was, I was
actually kind of excited about it because if I did actually have ADHD, then it was something
that I could maybe manage. In addition to, you know, having trouble getting
things done, it caused me a lot of stress to not be getting those things done. And, as a result, I had a lot of anxiety around
that. And so, to maybe have the possibility of treating
that, I was just… that was very exciting for me. I was diagnosed three or four months ago. The way it actually came up was that I had
gone to my psychologist for what I thought was a different set of things. And I still don’t really know how interrelated
they are. I had gone because I was applying to med schools. And it was extremely stressful. I was having a really hard time feeling confident. And I thought it had gotten better that I
could talk about it without this again. Can I get you a tissue? So I’d gone in for that and, while there,
we were trying to pick apart why… We were trying to pick apart why I felt so
insecure about things in general. I definitely never felt like I was as good
as the other med students or as good as the other grad students. On paper, I can write the same thing, but
I never feel like I earned it. Like, I never feel like I put in nearly as
many hours into studying for med school as some other med students or that I spent nearly
as much time in lab as some other grad students. And I always attributed it to a lack of discipline. I just can’t focus for that long on a thing. And so, like, when he heard that, he kind
of latched onto this whole discipline thing. Like, why does it have to be discipline. You know, could it be an attention thing? He’s like, “I’m gonna refer you to a psychiatrist
to be evaluated for ADHD. What do you feel about that?” My initial reaction was kind of like, “Yeah,
what’s new.” But I’m still trying to figure out how much
it affects my day to day and how much of it is personality and how much of it is something
that I want to change or feel needs to change. ADHD affects about 5% of the population. And it’s more commonly diagnosed in boys
than in girls at a rate of about three boys for every one girl. But that may be partially the result of the
fact that it can be harder to recognize the symptoms in girls. Symptoms usually start to show up when kids
are between 3 and 6 years old, and can continue into adulthood. Although some adults may outgrow it. So I don’t know if I was diagnosed as a child
ever. There were a couple of times where my parents
were worried about me for reasons that I didn’t really understand or at least don’t remember
and I saw a psychologist. But I don’t remember any detailed conversations
about it. I do know that when I told my parents about
it after I was diagnosed and started treatment, that they didn’t seem really surprised. So I kind of wonder if this was something
that they got hints of. I used to do this thing where I’d blow spit
bubbles with my mouth. And the teachers found that really annoying. And so what I kind of wonder is maybe I would
do things to amuse myself because I wasn’t focusing on the lessons. But, like, sitting in class wasn’t a thing
where I was learning a lot. It was reading the book and working the exercises
where I learned. And it was only later when I got into more
unstructured jobs when I started to run into some trouble. So, did I have it as a kid? Was I diagnosed as a kid? I can certainly see how my behavior patterns
as a child would fit with what later became as I know it to be ADHD. I kind of always had the idea that perhaps
I might have ADHD. I think my parents also, when I was younger,
thought that I had ADHD. They never felt the need for me to go see
a psychologist or to be medicated because I was getting good grades. I had friends. I kept out of trouble. But I talked a lot. And I got in trouble for that a lot. And I was always trying to run around and
climb on things and jump on things. So when I was actually diagnosed, it wasn’t
really that surprising. ADHD is a complex condition, with a lot of
different symptoms. But most of them are related to issues with
“goal-oriented behaviors”. Things like paying attention, staying focused,
and seeing tasks through to the end. There are three different subtypes of ADHD,
and each is defined by their primary symptoms. People with the primarily inattentive subtype
tend to be easily distracted and forgetful. They lose track of time and have a hard time
focusing on tasks. This subtype can be more difficult to identify
and diagnose. And, related to what I was saying earlier,
girls are more likely to have this kind of ADHD. People who are primarily hyperactive-impulsive,
on the other hand, are often fidgety and impatient, have a hard time controlling their impulses,
and are very talkative. In adults, this kind of ADHD can appear as
an “inner restlessness” rather than outward movement. And the third subtype is the combination subtype, with a mixture of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms. All three of these subtypes can include other
symptoms of ADHD, including difficulty managing anger and poor handwriting. And sometimes ADHD can result in developmental
delays or it can co-occur with other neurodevelopmental conditions like epilepsy, Tourette’s Syndrome,
OCD, and autism. For me, I definitely have more of the hyperactive- impulsive type of ADHD than the inattentive type. We were getting ingredients for pizza and
Steve was like, “Should I clean the house while you go to the grocery store or do you
want to clean the house while I go to the grocery store?” I’m like, “You go to the grocery store because
you’ll actually come back with the things I tell you to bring back.” If I go, I’m going to get distracted and come
back with a whole bunch of other things. That happens a lot. In social situations, before I started taking
the medication, I could not remember people’s names to save my life. I would be introduced at a party. “Hi, I’m Bob.” “Hi, I’m Steve.” And I would forget in the next sentence what
their name was. I was just not…I was just…it just couldn’t. And it would be this really intense conversation
right up til the end and I would go to say goodbye and I couldn’t remember their name
and it… so it was like, very kind of stressful for
me. And I think kind of awkward for a lot of people
involved! Like so many other complex neurological conditions,
it’s not totally clear what causes ADHD. But there seems to be some kind of genetic
component. Siblings of kids with ADHD are 3 to 4 times
as likely to have it themselves compared to families without ADHD. Genome-wide association studies, which use
big data sets to look for patterns across the entire human genome, have found a relationship
between genes involved in dopamine transmission and ADHD. Dopamine is commonly known as one of the “reward
molecules” of the brain. But it’s important for lots of other things
too. Like controlling decision making, movement,
and motivation. There are environmental factors that play
a role, too. For example, fetal alcohol syndrome, exposure
to certain chemicals, and particular types of infections, like the measles during pregnancy
or early childhood can all increase the likelihood of an ADHD diagnosis or cause ADHD-like symptoms. One of the reasons we know that ADHD is a
real condition is that doctors have been studying it for a while now. Using fMRI research, which studies brain activation
by measuring blood flow, scientists have found changes in a bunch of different brain regions. One of the most well-known changes is that
kids with ADHD have reduced activation in the inferior fronto-striatal circuit compared
to kids without ADHD during motor inhibition tasks. This means that kids with ADHD had less activation
in the circuit that helps us prevent motion. Many other brain regions show decreased activation,
too. Including a bunch of regions associated with
controlling movement. Like the supplementary motor area, the anterior
cingulate cortex, the right striatum, and the left thalamus. People with ADHD also showed reduced activation
in the right dorsal attention network, which could be a key part of the inattentive type
of ADHD. Overall, most of the changes seen in the ADHD
brain are decreases in signaling in circuits that are important for controlling impulses
and in networks that help control attention. A lot of the problems seem to be related to
the communication between the frontal lobe, which is the brain’s executive processing
center, and the regions responsible for coordinating various behaviors. All of these results are based on meta-analysis
of large sets of research studies. But it’s always important to remember that
fMRI research can’t tell us everything. Like it doesn’t tell us exactly which neurotransmitters
are involved. Also, this work has focused primarily on kids. Only a few studies have looked at adults with
ADHD. But the studies that do look at adults have
found similar results. Now, ADHD is treated a couple of different
ways. Micah will talk about clinical therapeutic
approaches in another video. So for now I’ll just say that therapy can
be effective in mild to moderate cases. Particularly when it comes to helping folks
with ADHD learn strategies to stay organized and helping patients recognize their own behavioral
patterns to help mitigate the effects. Medication is another effective treatment
for ADHD. Though of course it’s not without its controversy. Most folks have heard about popular ADHD medications
like Adderall or Ritalin because they’re sometimes abused. Often by students who are just trying to boost
their studying skills. These drugs are not some sort of Limitless
drug that unlocks your brain’s capacity. They’re actually just stimulants, which
seems like a weird thing to give to a person with a hyperactivity problem. But, if you look at the brain rather than
the behavior, it makes a lot of sense. Scientists think these drugs increase the
availability of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. Since part of ADHD is thought to be related
to problems in dopamine signaling, it makes sense that these drugs might help. So I’m on a very small dose of ritalin. Like, it’s 5mgs. It’s about as small as you can get. For me, I don’t feel like it’s a stimulant
in that I don’t feel like I have more energy. For me, it kind of just makes the anxiety
tone down a little bit. He put me on 20 milligrams of extended release
adderall. And I take that every morning. The biggest difference I’ve noticed is that
I’m far more relaxed. My approach to conversations at social events
is much more focused. Adderall and Ritalin both have similar effects,
in that they help improve focus and reduce impulsive behavior. But they aren’t without their side effects,
which can include difficulty sleeping, loss of appetite, nervousness, headaches, and more. When I first started taking the medication…actually,
the first day that I took it, I very distinctly remember being in the car and suddenly there
was this intense rush of all these things that I could be doing, right? And it almost felt like it was exacerbating
it. And I felt like, “Oh my gosh. Maybe this is just going to make things worse.” And that first day was a little weird, not
gonna lie. But what I’ve been told was that you have to kind of
adjust to it. And so there’s these immediate effects, but
then you keep taking it and sort of the immediate effects don’t really have the same impact
as they once did. And it was really remarkable. On the second day, that didn’t happen. And it hasn’t actually ever happened since. Sometimes other medications are prescribed,
too. Especially when the ADHD is comorbid with
something else, like depression or anxiety. Ultimately, it’s up to the person affected
by ADHD and their families to decide what approach is best for them. The debate is ongoing as to the true prevalence
of ADHD, and how it’s best treated. And since ADHD medications are stimulants
that can be easily abused, there’s a real concern regarding overprescription to children. Parents might not want to give their child
stimulants. Or people have observed that maybe ADHD isn’t
so much a disease as it is a product of the social environment and the economic environment
that we live in. I’m kind of fascinated by that as a possibility. Maybe this isn’t a disease so much of me,
here and now, as it is a change in the way that humans are expected to be in the world
just because of, I don’t know, industrialization and all this other who-knows-what. It’s fun to talk about, but it’s also not
something I can do much about. And it’s okay. It’s fine. Everybody’s got their problems. I feel really lucky in my life. I’ve got a lot of good things that
I’m very grateful for. And if that’s the cross I have to bear, cool. We’re good. Totally fine. Researchers are working to better understand
the biological underpinnings of ADHD so they can develop more targeted therapies. But however it’s treated, it’s a real
condition. And it’s important that people with ADHD
have access to the resources and medications they need to succeed. Do you have thoughts or feelings about ADHD
and how it’s viewed by society? Let us know in the comments. Huge thank you to our friends Cindy and Steve
for their help with this video. We’re always so inspired by the willingness
of our friends to share their experiences. Until our next transmission, I’m Alie Astrocyte. Over and out.

34 thoughts on “Neuroscience of ADHD”

  • This is Barris! - French History says:

    As someone who has also been recently diagnosed with ADHD (Without the hyperactive part too, I'm a pretty passive guy haha), thank you for this video. It was a brilliant interview and it's pretty motivational to see how successful they've become despite their ADHD.

    Personally, I learned a lot from my own condition and I'll share it with those around me that don't take my condition seriously… The first time I took my medication was truly a life changing so it is truly sad when people judge you for taking them.

  • It can be hard to figure out how to treat ADHD. Some medications can trigger bouts of depression in those who are inclined. Which in turn excecerbates the ADHD symptoms and makes the medication ineffective.

  • Great video! But I found myself fidgeting and having trouble watching to the end.. (I did finish it in the end though) Maybe I have some form of ADHD?

  • I really like the incorporation of interviews in this one. Added a nice touch of human element and told the story of the science nicely. Well done Ali and Micah!

  • Excellent video. In looking back, I’m certain that I would have been diagnosed with ADHD had that diagnosis been prevalent 57 years ago. As it was, school from day one was a struggle, a struggle that has lasted through my adult life. If you have a child who displays behavior that could even remotely be diagnosed as ADHD, please have a professional evaluation. I can tell you that the anxiety, depression and self esteem issues are way worse than any medication that your child may take.

  • Thanks for doing this video!! This effects me too. I go off and on meds all the time and now I’m back on and excelling in work and school again. And writing Music again too! ❤️

  • Instead of shoe horning artificial chemicals like.aderal try a little bit of methyl folate, vit c and tyrosine to increase your own dopamine/catecholamine neurotransmitters and if necessary throw in a little bit of coffee with raw coco powder if you need a little extra stimulant.

  • A really great video, Alie. Thanks! As someone with ADHD, though, I did find it quite difficult to focus on your explanations of the different subtypes when all those pop-ups kept happening as my brain wanted to see what was going on in the mini-videos. Haha. I had to re-watch that section three or four times.

  • This helped me understand my boyfriend way better. He's been diagnosed with the hyperactive-impulsive subtype since he was a kid and he never ever ever shuts up. Thanks so much!

  • I saw a video about dr. Gabor Maté talking about ADHD, he has some unorthodox ideas to say the least but would be cool to know what other people think.

  • Mateus Seenem Tavares says:

    thank you, I am adhd too, and found correlation that i didn't think of, like social anxiety (never paid attention to it with ritalin), the amusement to not be "bored", gees, I am always a funny machine, making jokes about everything on my mind xD

  • This is a great way to introduce the condition! Everyone can get bored and lose focus, but when it's affecting your life significantly you need the diagnosis.

    As someone who got an ADD diagnosis very late in life, at an age of 45, I can't fathom how I was able to manage for so long, but it was in spurts and fueled by energetic music.

    I know the term ADD has been subsumed by ADHD in North America in any case, but I'm not fond of that, since I don't have and don't identify with the hyperactive aspect.

  • Hi my nane is inkar i am 13 and i want to be a neiroscientist what should i do now so it could be easier for me to study in the future? Do you can have coulourful hair if you are neiroscientist?? Can i wear pink if i am a neiroscientist?

  • Good video. I recommend Russell Barkley for all adults miss diagnosed with adhd. He seems to be one of the few authors who sees the deep implications in adhd. It can be much more impairing than this. Is a very serious condition.

  • I'm a second year medical student with ADHD-PI. Among my peers and my family, a lack of understanding for our condition is very palpable. Most people simply do not grasp that the lack of motivation and attention stems from a neurochemical deficit.

    On a personal note, a lot of things from the interview with the lovely couple (forgot their names already, hah!) resonated with me, especially about not feeling like you've deserved it, or having trouble with believing that you are actually good at something.

    I find comfort in the fact that I am not the only one with this condition (and a fellow med student as well, wow!), and that we are all trying our best to overcome it.

    To all my peers out there, remember that the path is a long and tortuous one, just keep your chin up, and keep at it, success will follow.

  • This channel is like a gold mine :') I am a current uni student studying psychology and am highly interested in neuroscience in particular. I saw this video about ADHD which drew me in. Then I watched your video on participating in a research study and had no idea people could openly sign up for one. Thank goodness my school actually has a study open which made me super exciting because it was something I've always wanted to do 🙂

  • Sylvia Sakakalauskas says:

    You want to know what it's like to have ADHD. Try finding out in your late 30's after self medicating on opiates cause I felt something wasn't right. Having 2 parents from 2 different cultures and countries that didn't know one thing about Neurological disorder and one feels sorry, as the other is verbally abusive and unable to give a damn of why my life hasn't turned out that great. Though I have accomplished more then 75% of the world, i'm still not getting my father to understand and he is doing exactly what the father of my daughter did, exaggerate the addiction cause not adderall is a controlled substance, making my life a living hell. So, now you know. Though I reflect and see that I had ADHD my whole life now, he still thinks i'm just lazy and can't do anything right. That's how it is when people don't get that ADHD really ruined my life as much as I try to show them that my way of being I cannot help it's not a fucking excuse. Also, now more of the medical field need to be educated on it, they seem to be stupid about it. MORE OF THE MEDICAL COMMUNITY ESPECIALLY ER DOCTORS AND NOW REGISTERED NURSES SHOULD BY LAW BE MADE TO TAKE A CLASS ON THOSE WITH NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS CAUSE GOING TO THE ER FOR ME I BEST BE DEAD AT THIS POINT CAUSE I WON'T JUST GO UNLESS SOME CALLS CAUSE I'M NOT MOVING. I'll never feel safe there, any state facility at all I do not trust and as for law enforcement i'm good looking and that helps when trying to explain they at least willing to listen if you tell them the truth. I never want anyone to go through what I've been through, cause just knowing what I know and no one believing in me makes me wonder what the hell I did wrong to even get to where I am and that's no where. First it was if you're mentally ill everyone stereotyped you as crazy, now it's a little bit calmer. Yet, now you tell them it's not a true mental illness, it's a MEDICAL CONDITION that my brain doesn't connect your still crazy and just lying. So, I think it's time someone just makes my life into a movie, cause I will need help writing the book. Now, that just talking about how frustrating it is to be me, I don't think I can do it. Forgot to mention I have PTSD from the abuse, neglect, And trauma I suffered while in the care of what's supposed to be safe. If you see a sign and it says so not WORRY think be safe, run away as far as you can. They are full of crap or I wouldn't be here now that I cannot even leave me room. Hope that answers any questions, cause now I need to talk about something else. I'm a bit angry.

  • Farzan Farajizade says:

    I was diagnosed with ADHD when I was 15,
    to me an extended release form of 18 mg methylphenidate plus fluvoxamine 50 mg (an SSRI) for my OCD is working well but I wish really had no ADHD, cause I'm a student living in a dorm that many students wants me to give them my medications! because of its abuse potential and by rejecting them, they become mean to me and even call me as a drug abuser.
    in nights I really can't take my pill so have awful nights without studying and just spending time.

    thanks waiting for your OCD video.

  • As a medical student with ADHD this really resonated with me! I like how the video included interviews and perspectives of ADHD.

  • Thank you. I was diagnosed at 43 and the way Cindy explained how she felt is EXACTLY how I feel. Thank you for sharing your stories.

  • I have ADHD along with a host of other learning challenges. I hate when I see us in jobs that most ADDers can't reach cuz we don't have the abilities to be Dr's and have high paying jobs. This just made me mad

  • Dr. conners (the father of ADHD) writes: "For many years I interpreted everything about ADHD in a positive light: the increased research funding and accumulating research findings; the increased clinical awareness; more kids being treated with stimulants; the interest of parents and teachers; legislation making ADHD kids candidates for Special Ed; even drug company support for medical education and parents’ groups like CHADD. All seemed to be positive solutions to an important problem facing many families and school systems.

    But then one day I was asked to give a talk on what is the true prevalence of ADHD, as shown by empirical data. I was already aware that in some circles America is a laughingstock for its love affair with the idea of ADHD. Massive European birth registries show far lower rates than those being reported in the U.S. And my wife, who is a school psychologist, was telling me that any misbehaving kid in school would be quickly labeled ADHD by teachers.

    I was always suspicious that the high rates of “diagnosis” and prescription for ADHD came about because researchers based their figures on reports from parents, who in turn based their beliefs on teachers or doctors with no credible evidence. However large a massive survey, the data are pretty much worthless for one simple reason: there is no thorough history taking and hands-on clinical diagnosis. Large numbers of participants in a study guarantee sloppy diagnoses done via telephone interviews conducted by non clinicians. Careful diagnosis by clinicians is simply too expensive. The reported rates are inaccurate and exaggerated, upper limits not true prevalence.

    There was one exception in the literature, a massive study in the Western counties of North Carolina by two epidemiologists at Duke University. The investigators, Adrian Angold and Jane Costello, interviewed thousands of parents AND THEIR CHILDREN, using the latest epidemiological methods. They devised a comprehensive interview schedule and trained dozens of interviewers with a thesaurus that made sure the same inquiry took place exactly the same way for each family. For the first time, this highly praised award-winning study had both large numbers and detailed clinical examination.

    The results of this amazing project were startling. Only about 1-2% qualified as ADHD. Moreover, many children not sick at all had been given a stimulant drug. Also there were some children who actually qualified for the diagnosis of ADHD who never were identified by a mental health professional; there was both over-diagnosis and under- diagnosis. The findings were replicated in successive rounds of follow-on studies.

    It seems obvious to me that the steady increases over time In the apparent high prevalence of ADHD is due to doctor practices fueled by the shoddy science and allure of the big numbers, without the only meaningful ingredient of a comprehensive clinical history. Doctors on the front line who only have 20 minutes to get a story from a parent or to follow with medication checks or alternative therapies, are under pressure that guarantee mistakes with a complex disorder like ADHD.

    My review suddenly flipped my perception. I felt and announced to stunned colleagues that the over-diagnosis of ADHD was “an epidemic of tragic proportions.” Tragic because many kids get the wrong diagnosis and really have a different problem that needs a different treatment: or they are normal youngsters given a treatment they don’t need; or the drugs prescribed for them are given away or sold to other students wanting a quick fix for studying or partying—a reason why schools and colleges now have huge numbers of students using stimulant drugs, and why emergency rooms are increasingly overwhelmed with overdosing youngsters.

    Alan Schwartz of the New York Times exposed how disease-mongering and ruthless advertising by big Pharma had fed an eager medical system with false data, also capitalizing on the cooperation of unscrupulous “thought leaders” in child psychiatry. Doctors of course bear a lot of the responsibility- prescriptions for stimulant drugs can only come from doctors. Most hard-working primary care or general pediatric practitioners mean well but have too little time to really get to know their patients and too little expertise to be skeptical of misleading Pharma propaganda.

    I am alarmed to see how even some of my most respected colleagues deny the facts and bury their head in the sand. I recently talked to one of these highly published senior professors who has a “Distinguished Chair of Psychiatry and Genetics” and many publications on ADHD. I asked him what he thought about the New York Times revelations on the role of pharmaceutical companies in promoting over-diagnosis. He said, ‘I really don’t know that much about the numbers; I’m not an expert in epidemiology.’

    Well, neither am I, but I know how to tell the difference between studies relying on telephone interviews of parents and those doing an actual meaningful clinical assessment. In today’s ADHD world the detailed family and developmental history has been replaced by word of mouth from parents and teachers and quickie interviews, largely by untrained primary care or general pediatric practitioners.

    I now believe that ADHD is part of a normal continuum going from very mild restlessness and Inattention to a severe form that requires treatment and skilled diagnostic assessment by well-trained clinicians.”

  • Leigh Clifton says:

    Listening to the couple at the beginning make me think I may need to see the doctor. I suffer from depression caused by my inability to ever achieve anything. I normally refer to myself as a compulsive procrastinator.

    I actually got distracted writing this comment. I opened my phone after about 30 minutes and realised I’d been writing a comment.

  • marionettbabu says:

    Food…. Gut effecting brain…. Among others, Dr Pelsser and team in the Netherlands work on the Brain Studie now, after many years of successfuly helping families with children diagnosed with ADHD. The diet the children follow is called RED and is an elimination diet.
    In the family we saw fantastic results with the complete removal of dairy products.

  • He's totally adorable. Sigh. It must be nice to go to med school where everyone around you is well-informed about things like this. Not so, doing a humanities PhD. Mine didn't get recornigzed until far into my first tenure-track job, as I realized that my old coping mechanisms were failing, I wasn't going to get my published research out in time to keep my job, and I fell into a very deep depression. Why did it have to happen that way? Noone in 35 years noticed? Really? Not even psychotherapists treating me for anxiety and mood problems? Seriously. WTF. Still angry.

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