How Large is the Universe?

How Large is the Universe?


The universe has long captivated us with its
immense scales of distance and time. How far out does it stretch? Where does it
end, and what lies beyond the star fields and the streams of galaxies that extend as
far as telescopes can see? These questions are beginning to yield to
a series of extraordinary new lines of investigation, and to technologies that are letting us peer
not only into the most distant realms of the cosmos but at the behavior of matter and energy
on the smallest of scales. Remarkably, our growing understanding of this
kingdom of the ultra-tiny, inside the nuclei of atoms, is now enabling us to glimpse the
answer to the ancient question: How large is the universe? In ancient times, most observers saw the stars
as a sphere surrounding the earth and as the home of deities. The Greeks were the first to see celestial
events as phenomena, subject to human investigation rather than the fickle whims of the Gods. One philosopher and sky-watcher named Anaxagorus
suggested that meteors are made of materials found on Earth and therefore, might have even
come from the Earth. Those early astronomers built the foundations
of modern science. But they would be shocked to see the discoveries being made by their
counterparts today. The stars and planets that once harbored the
gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy that
extends far out into space. Just how far began to emerge in the 1920s.
Working at the huge new 100-inch Hooker Telescope on California’s Mt. Wilson, astronomer Edwin
Hubble, along with an assistant named Milt Humason, analyzed the light of fuzzy patches
of sky known then as nebulae. They showed that these were actually distant
galaxies located far beyond our own. Hubble and Humason discovered that most of
them are moving away from us. The farther out they looked, the faster these objects
are receding. This fact, now known as Hubble’s law, suggests
that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together
in one place. Everything that astronomers saw in their increasingly
large telescopes would have dated back to a singular beginning, now called the Big Bang. That the universe could expand had been predicted
back in 1917 by Albert Einstein, except that Einstein himself didn’t believe it until
he saw Hubble and Humason’s evidence. Einstein’s general theory of relativity
suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding. So when
a photon gets blasted out from a distant star, it moves through a cosmic landscape that is
getting larger and larger, increasing the distance it must travel to reach us. So, how large the cosmos has gotten since
the big bang depends on how long its been growing, in addition to its expansion rate. Recent precision measurements gathered by
the Hubble space telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus, that the universe
dates back 13.7 billion years. In that time a beam of light would have traveled
13.7 billion light years, or about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers. But taking into account the expansion of the
universe, the most distant galaxies discovered by the Hubble space telescope are actually
46 billion light years away from us in each direction and almost 92 billion light years
from each other. So is that the size of the universe? It’s not, according to a dramatic new theory
that describes the origins of the cosmos. It holds that our 92 billion light-year patch
is a mere speck within the universe as a whole. The theory is based on the discovery that
energy is constantly welling up from the vacuum of space in the form of particles of opposite
charge, matter and anti-matter. Back in the 1980s, the physicist Alan Guth
proposed that energy fields embedded in the vacuum of space had suddenly tipped into a
higher energy state, causing space and time to literally “inflate.” The universe went from atomic size to cosmological
size within an infinitesimally short time. As a result, according to Guth’s calculation,
the universe as a whole would have grown to some ten billion trillion times the size of
the observable universe. That’s a ten followed by 24 zeroes. Put another way, the whole universe is to
the observable universe – as the observable universe is – to an atom. The incredible fury of cosmic inflation helps
explain the immense size and smoothness of the universe. But to succeed, the theory must also account
for how the universe produced what we see around us, all those stars and galaxies and
clusters of galaxies, and ultimately us. Scientists are now attempting to piece together
the chain of events that launched our universe in its earliest moments by generating what
you might call a “little bang.” At the Brookhaven National Lab in New York
State, they are blasting gold atoms in opposite directions down tunnels almost two and a half
miles long. When these atoms reach velocities just short
of the speed of light, they are sent into a violent collision. A fireball erupts, reaching a temperature
exceeding two trillion degrees Centigrade. As far as we know, the last time anything
in our universe was that hot was about a millionth of a second after its birth. What interests the scientists is the splatter
of subatomic particles, a super-hot soup of quarks and gluons that theory says gave rise
to matter as we know it. In initial tests, this quark-gluon plasma
has shown a crucial property: extremely low viscosity or resistance to flow. Scientists
call it a perfect liquid. To grasp its importance, we go back to those
primordial energy fields that the theory says spawned the big bang. The thinking is that
those fields contained tiny fluctuations that were blown up to huge size during inflation. In the ultra-dense quark-gluon mix, these
fluctuations generated pressure waves, or ripples. As the universe evolved, these ripples
gave rise to variations in the density of matter. Amazingly, the imprint of those primordial
ripples is out there today in a faint signal discovered accidentally back in the 1960s. Working for the Bell Telephone Company, physicists
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had built a giant horn-shaped antenna. But wherever they
pointed, the contraption picked up excessive noise in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic
spectrum. That noise turned out to match a prediction
made years earlier: that in the wake of the big bang, the universe was filled with a cloud
of extremely hot gas that scattered all light. As the universe cooled, the cloud dissipated.
Light then shone through Over time the spectral signature of this light
would have shifted, as the universe expanded and cooled, to what Penzias and Wilson detected.
What they’d heard was the echo of the Big Bang. This image shows the smooth contours of the
light recorded by the Bell team. Scientists would have to look closer to find the imprint
of cosmic inflation. The Space Shuttle Discovery lifted the Hubble
Space Telescope into orbit on April 24, 1990, in one of the most important scientific milestones
of our time. Another launch, arguably just as important,
took place five months earlier. The Cosmic Observation Background Explorer,
COBE for short, was sent up to take a harder look at the microwave radiation discovered
by Penzias and Wilson. The results came out two and a half years
later. The light of the early universe contained a pattern of hot and cold spots. In this image was nothing less than the origin
of all we see around us today, smooth on a large scale, but with significant clumps from
which gravity would form gas clouds, then stars, and galaxies. With this cosmic template in hand, astronomers
set out to discover how the patterns and the dimensions of the universe evolved over time. In an age of computer controlled telescopes
and automated observing, astronomers could now launch huge international collaborations
with the goal of mapping a large fraction of the universe in three dimensions. At Apache Point in New Mexico, the Sloan Digital
Sky Survey set the standard for mass production astronomy. A series of steel plates are drilled with
holes that exactly match the location of galaxies in the night sky. After plugging fiber optic sensors into the
holes, the plates capture the light of hundreds of galaxies per night. From that light the
astronomers calculate their distances from Earth. Another survey is named the 2 Micron All Sky
Survey, or 2Mass, after the frequency of infrared light its detectors are tuned to capture. In this image, the 2Mass data covers a region
60 million light years across. The local group of galaxies, including the Milky Way, are
in the center. This is our intergalactic neighborhood. Jump further out to a region about 200 million
light years across. Our location is linked to the densely packed Virgo Supercluster,
the nearest intergalactic city. Stepping out to a region over 320 million
light years across, you can see the full breadth of our local region of the universe. Galaxies
line up in walls and arcs. Beyond them are sparsely-populated voids, the rural cosmic
countryside. Moving out with the data, this region is over
650 million light years across. Then almost two billion. 3.2 billion. And finally out to a region 6.5 billion light
years from end to end: the cosmic continent. In the middle of it all, our galaxy, so immense
from our Earthly perspective, is less than a speck. The 2mass study, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,
and the 2 Degree Field in Australia have extended our maps to a quarter of the way back to the
beginning of the universe. They have laid out a grand cosmic roadmap. COBE’s successor, the Wilkinson Microwave
Anisotropy Probe, or “WMAP”, was launched to scan the early universe for the fine-scale
origins of this cosmic atlas. WMAP traveled beyond any interference from
Earth, to a position balanced between the Earth and the Sun. There, for two years, its detectors took in
the pristine light of deep space. This is what WMAP saw: a pattern consistent
with the filaments and voids that had evolved in the universe at large. Scientists are poring over the WMAP data for
clues to the true dimensions of the universe. One group, for example, looked for repeating
patterns that could be evidence of pressure waves that ricocheted through the hot gas
of early times. They saw none, which implies that the universe
had grown so large during inflation that such waves could not cross it. Then they did the math and reported that the
entire universe must have a minimum diameter of 78 billion light years. So what is its maximum size, and what’s
beyond that? We will never know for sure what lies beyond
our visual horizon, but astronomers are turning up some surprising hints in the universe they
can see. To ancient observers, the universe was made
of five classical elements: Earth, Water, Air, Fire, and a fifth, Quintessence, or space. Aristotle believed the stars, unchanging and
incorruptible, were made of this fifth element. Today, we are finding that space, in fact,
has a character of its own. Astronomers have calculated the gravitational
pull needed to bind stars as they orbit a galaxy or galaxies as they orbit a cluster
of galaxies. They have found that there is simply nowhere
near enough visible matter there to hold these structures together. The missing ingredient, its identity still
unknown, they call: Dark Matter. In supercomputer simulations of cosmic evolution,
dark matter is added in to supply the gravitational tug needed to form the web pattern of filaments
and walls; voids and dense clusters we see in the universe at large. But something else appears to be happening
on these large scales. Astronomers have been making refined measurements
of the cosmic expansion rate with a new type of distance marker. They wanted to know if gravity was slowing
down the pace at which the universe is growing. The markers they used, type 1A supernovae,
are thought to burn at uniform intensities throughout the universe. By measuring changes in the brightness of
these so-called standard candles at various distances, the researchers can spot changes
in the cosmic expansion rate. To their surprise, the data showed that the
universe as a whole is not only expanding, it’s actually accelerating outward! The culprit is thought to be energy welling
up from the vacuum of space, similar to what occurred in the early moments of the Big Bang,
causing cosmic inflation. By emerging in minute quantities everywhere,
it is pushing space outward across the whole universe. Over time, this so-called “Dark Energy”
has grown to an astonishing three-fourths of all the matter and energy in the universe. With data like this pointing to an underlying
dynamic within our universe, some scientists are thinking of the cosmos in far broader
terms than ever before. There is a version of inflationary theory,
for example, that suggests we live in one of many universes, that may co-exist side
by side but do not touch one another. Like bubbles, they are continually rising
up and expanding across the oceans of infinity. Just 500 years ago, in Galileo’s time, many
people looked out into space and saw a universe of lights centered on the Earth. The invention of the telescope revealed stars
far from our planet, then galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and beyond them, vast walls and
filaments of matter. Newer ideas about the size of the universe
amount to a quantum leap in our sense of scale, by extending these structures far, far beyond
our horizon. Do these discoveries push us, on our tiny
out-of-the-way planet, into a smaller and smaller corner of Creation? Or does our ability to comprehend and imagine
the far limits of time and space somehow expand our importance in the grand scheme of things?

100 thoughts on “How Large is the Universe?”

  • Hey everyone, if you like this video you should check out more space and science videos in 4k at https://magellan.tv/space

  • Frederick John Picarello says:

    The funny thing is the smaller the earth seems 2get with its increasing population of ppl & modern technology the bigger the universe seems to get at the same time!

  • Ken Quesenberry says:

    What we call "The Universe" is likely a disk shaped formation made up of countless galaxies, nebulae, and other space stuff, and is likely one of countless universes contained in yet another disk shaped formation that we don't even have a name for. So on and so forth to infinity.

  • UNIVERSE CANNOT MEASURE BECAUSE UNIVERSE ARE ROUND LIKE A BASKET BALL BALL AND NO END ANGD UNTIL NOW UNIVERSE ARE EXPANDING AND GALAXY ARE MULTIPLYING AND UNIVERSE ARE NO AGE TIME DAY OR YEAR BECAUSE NO SUN ON THE CENTER

  • This is all a bunch of horse sheeyott. Horse shith. Horse shittles. The earth is flat like my balls. Like two manhole covers inside of a meat sack. A huge meat sack. It’s a hundred billion trillion feet long. ✊🏻😉🇺🇸

  • 3. [And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see any breaks?

    4. Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued.

    Quran chapter 67 Al-Mulk ayah: 3-4

  • The answer is simple so don't ask this stupid question again, you dumb scientists!

    So…the answer is – we won't find out until we master instantaneous space travel!
    Once we traverse several hundred million light years or more in a split second, we
    can check for ourselves. In the meantime – shut up!
    Or, if you're in touch with an extraterrestrial civilization, ask them!

  • KJV 예수쟁이 says:

    (KJV)(Hebrews 3:4) For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God:
    (KJV)(Romans 1:19-20) Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed
    it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood
    by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse

  • KJV 예수쟁이 says:

    (KJV)(Hebrews 9:27) And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment

    (KJV)(Revelation 21:8) But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers,
    and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death:
    (KJV)(Romans 6:23) For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

  • Diriangen Nicarao says:

    WHICH UNIVERSE??? OURS OR THE ONE IN SO SOME OTHER GALAXIA..?? THERE ARE MILLION OF GALAXIAS AND WE ARE JUST A SPECK IN THE INFINITE..!! THERE IS NO END..!!

  • Indeed your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and earth in six days and then He established Himself above the Throne. He cover the night with day chasing it rapidly and He created the sun the moon and the stars subjected by His command unquestionably His is the creation and command, blessed is Allah Lord of the worlds. Quran Al-'araaf ;54

  • There is not only one universe, there are millions of universe's And there is NO END to the space outside of our (universe)

  • Thought for the day.. What if we are expanding because our universe is riding on the shockwave of another universe expanding inside our own? The big Bang being a white hole still spitting out shockwaves at the center of all things? to imagine this picture a bubble expanding with another bubble inside expanding so on and so forth bigger the outer bubble expands the faster it moves as the bubble inside does the same…

  • science is only focus on the effect of life not the cause. The effect is physicality, the cause is spirituality. Only philosophy and art can't explore the cause.

  • hehe 3rd question. What lies beyond the stars etc etc. More stars obviously. get a life and get up to date. stop with this regurgitated 100 year old and very robustly debunked dogma.

  • I always asked myself, where all this matter came from? Sometimes I mentally travel beyond the end of the world.
    Amazing video, thanks.

  • It’s amazing how intelligence is looking from the outside conducting this experiments. So what Gave energy to produce the Big Bang? Like this scientist they created this simulation and actually proving that it takes an intelligence to create matter. Without this scientist this experiment wouldn’t of happened at all because nothingness can’t creat anything or itself. Now in the beginning the eternal GOD Created the heavens and the earth, that’s intelligence.

  • Gerard Joseph Hinzman Hinzman says:

    GOD CREATED EVERYTHING AND GOD ALWAYS EXISTED NO-ONE WAS BEFORE GOD SO I BELIEVE THAT GOD AND THE UNIVERSE ALWAYS EXISTED IN SOME FORMULARY THE UNIVERSE IS ALWAYS CHANGING HOWEVER I REALLY BELIEVE IN SOME SPECIAL WAY IT ALWAYS WAS HERE YOU CAN'T MAKE SOMETHING FROM NOTHING IF YOU PUT A WATERMELON SEED IN THE GROUND A WATERMELON WILL GROW IF THE UNIVERSE AT ANYTIME DIDN'T EXIST THEN YOU BELIEVE THAT YOU CAN MAKE A WATERMELON FROM A EMPTY WINE BOTTLE 🍷

  • Craig PLANTsoup says:

    More lies all slicked up and ready to fool you… this is mainstream full of crap for you …don't fall for it…wakie wakie people shame on YouTube they push nothing but lies mainstream lies now……we need a new platform this sucks so does this video

  • MultiBrad777 dba ACid w Elder says:

    To be blunt ….that was absolute nonsense and not a shred ov science ….. certainly nothing repeatable by anyone…..Because abstract thinking/mathematics…. Can be anything you want it to be….but it’s not science

  • Humanity and Conflicts says:

    Reality is infinite. As we travel through the harmonic scales we realize that the minuscule prime distribution discrepancy will alter all laws of nature over scale, meaning the number of and the type of laws of nature is a continuum of variants that, when traversed from any arbitrary reality in math space, chosen wisely enough and with infinite luck, will lead us to our selves. There can only be one type of universe where we exist as we are right now, and that is here and now. As we travel the infinite reality, we come to other realities that first seem to allow other intelligent entities, like our selves, to traverse themselves using the same concept of thought. When we go further away from our reality, that is our laws of nature that bends into unrecognizable new realities, we can even reach nothingness and thus the infinite everything in absolute equilibrium. Realities that is perhaps simpler, not supporting life, or even more complex, supporting new concepts that is not even imaginable and undreamed of. The All of the Ever is infinite and is everything there ever was and will be.

  • i have been to the end of the universe, and what i saw was very disturbing , and i wouldn't destroy everyone's life like i did mine for looking. trust me you don't want to know, i will take this secret to the grave.

  • The so called scientists have not a clue in an ants brain just how BIG this universe is….it is infinite!!! That wasn't difficult!!!

  • According to my calculations and independent research the universe came into existence on a Thursday evening sometime between 6:48 and 8:21 Eastern Standard Time.

  • There is no such thing as The Big Bang,the universe as we call it today is already there and there is no end to it,Space is infinite,there is no beginning and end to it,just imagine thank you.

  • 1. I wonder if you were small enough to fly through the empty spaces between atoms and particles; the environment might be much similar to space. 2. If someone were to fly way out to the edge of the universe, as the universe is expanding.. someone were to actually catch up and fly beyond..I think they would literally fly out of existence, POOF and you literally no longer exist.

  • It is pretty damn BIG and just as soon as you travel across it…I will say you know what you are talking about. But util then you are full of shit and I will go find some intellectual thoughtful facts.

  • Frederick Rhodes says:

    If you can understand gravity as a function of magnetism in electromagnetic energy, then it all makes sense. The great attraction in one direction and expansion in the other. Electromagnetic waves cause electromagnetic lensing. The currents in the Universe are flowing back around.

  • The never ending space and time, will make bumping into strangers much less likely. They probably exist on millions of planets, millions of light years away.

  • The Universe is round, it is only Infinite because because space time goes around and around in a circle, that's it simple

  • LIE 1
    1.19 =How large is the universe is not a fucking ancient question less than 200 years ago the solar system was the fucking universe.
    LIE 2
    1.48 = the Greeks where first people to look at the stars BLAH BLAH.
    The aboriginal people of Australia are the oldest living civilization and culture on the is fucking planet.We are have history that goes much further than Greek pedophiles.
    Can you trace Greek star gazing back further than 65,000+ years.
    You and this program are racist cunts.
    LIE 3.
    for Hubble who admitted our view of the universe is very small , should not have made the claims the universe is expanding when the pole of data suggests we do not know how big the universe is and to make a comment on a small part of the universe we can observe is worse than the claim of god.
    7,03 making a claim with out evidence.
    This video should be pegged as child abuse

  • It was a lot easier to cope with (time-out, ignore) the potential size of the universe when we nonchalantly use the word "infinite." NON-infinite ratios, like the one given from 7:15 – 7:23, are much harder to handle.

  • T Hosea meya Meya says:

    Dark matters is making up the process in that universe eventually creating the all form that can be seen from our naked eyes..but one thing to remember is that , who is creating the Dark matters beyond our universe ,there is something again that creates Dark matters .who knows all the surrounding in the universe are Dark and deep who knows all the galaxies might be under one big Black hole.

  • T Hosea meya Meya says:

    Dark matters is making up the process in the universe eventually creating all forms in universe that can be seen from our naked eyes..but one thing is to remember,' who is creating the Dark matters' beyond our universe IAM curious my conscience telling me that there is something that creates Dark matters .Surrounding the universe are Dark beyond and deep space who knows all the galaxies that can be seen from our naked eyes might be under one big Black hole including ours.because of dark matters all things happens in it.

  • CHIEF TICKLESBALLSWITHFART says:

    Just think, the universe is technically zero light years across. You'd be surprised by all the lies of life that are exactly opposite of what they seem. The universe is a computer simulation, a cruel evil creator creates life then toys with it, digitally, akin to characters inside a video game. No minds bodies or matter ever existed, it's all a lie. A sick evil cruel world, existence. Purposefully. Intentionally that way, a CORRECT reflection of the mind of gOD. Worthy of annihilation and punishment. A consistent, harassing, stalking life that psychologically toys with it's prey for it's amusement.

  • when I look at these videos I get the same feeling I used to get when my wife was cheating on me.
    something tells you, she is lying ,but you want to be leave she is not.

  • Margaret Neanover says:

    Fiber optics can help teach , but they haven't measured force in motion in every aspect. To pick one "strand path " for lack of terms, they might be able to measure. When we use a flashlight in dark, it shines a distance, then slowly dims into dark. Why does the dark have referal to disapating when it is the containment of the factors? What keeps the light contained seems to have a disapating factor. Does it change speed, strength , or combine at a distance? More to learn

  • Margaret Neanover says:

    It's only hot compared to norms of structure. Like holding heat against space, that transforms into lighter to clear air. The heat us relative to norms. Otherwise, we would seem to have heat like the sun. Its like that in center of planet.

  • My best guess is that we can never know the deep questions, because our brains are not capable of knowing it. If we could press a button right now and know everything, it still wouldn't work because of our limitations. Also, imagine if we are actually the only life, which I veeeeery highly doubt. That would make us the minds of the Universe, because we are made from it. It would be like the Universe using us to figure itself out, without knowing it!

  • This video is a lie. The known universe extends to Antartica. What is beyond that is known only to freemasonic sun worshipers and the high priests of the scientism.

  • Depends on how you define "Universe". But easy, either way…it's bigger than a breadbox…pretty sure. A few trillion degrees, huh. Boy you could cook an egg on a sidewalk REALLY quickly…if there were eggs and sidewalks, that is, which there weren't. You just can't get your head around this stuff no matter how hard you try…so I just devolve into silliness.

  • What a FANTASY !! Might as well forget about SPACE. Because Earth is a Prison. No one is going anywhere !! The DOME or Firmament. STOPS ANYONE !!! HOW LARGE IS YOUR EGO? HOW LARGE IS YOUR TRUTH? hOW LARGE IS YOUR LIE?
    If you're a Christian, Job Chapter 38 describes how the earth was created. You will know whether earth is flat or globe.

    If anyone denies this they are satanic !!!! anti-Christ, gonna get the mark, minions.

    1. Does a globe have foundation? >>>>>>>>

    foundations are FLAT !!!!

    [[Job 38:4]] KJV Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

    2. Is it not a flat earth that needs a stretched line for measurement?

    >>>>> a stretched line, is FLAT !!!!

    [[Job 38:5]] KJV Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?

    3. Does a globe have a corner?

    4 Corners of Earth !!!! Cannot exist on a Ball.

    [[Job 38:6]] KJV Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof;

    Satan Loves Spheretards & GlobeHeads ……….. JESUS Loves Flat Earth Researchers !!!!!!!

  • Axel Shark's Theoretical Discovery says:

    I solved this topic. Soon I'll publish my book. It's the answer you have been waiting for. It's just not comming from the source you expected. I do have teasers if you need it. The universe is limitless by the way.

  • This is mind blowing. Can you imagine reaching the edge of the universe and just seeing nothingness and then just floating out in nothing until your oxygen runs out?!! No? Just me then…..😳

  • Dedskin Prodcer/DJ says:

    These hot and cold spots they show you https://youtu.be/yaX4iGw-b_Y?t=772 have a difference in temperature Delta T of 0,2 Kelvin , its so small you cant even detect it on your skin , could be a result of equipment malfunction or mathematical or human error or those combined , or something third , what it can not be is exactly what they tell you it is , origin of universe , that is most certainly not what it is , i happen to know what it is , its a Heat or temperature reflection from Earths clouds , water in it , braking in from the back of the sensor , there is no difference in temperature of deep space , so its a complete lie , that is what you scientists tell you , lies . At least far as Astro Physics is concerned , clear example of it , and im not the only one that knows it , bunch of ppl know it , its known that Cosmic Background Radiation measurement equipment is a fail , and provably so

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