How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

Is there a border we will never cross? Are there places we will never reach,
no matter how hard we try? Turns out there are. Even with science fiction technology,
we are trapped in our pocket of the Universe. How can that be?
And, how far can we go? We live in a quiet arm of the Milky Way;
A spiral galaxy of average size, – about 100,000 light years across – consisting of billions of stars, gas clouds,
dark matter, black holes, neutron stars, and planets, with a supermassive
black hole in the galactic centre.>From afar, our galaxy seems dense, but
in reality, it consists, mostly, of empty space. With our current technology, sending a human
to the closest star, would take thousands of years. So, our galaxy is pretty big. The Milky Way is not alone, though. Along with the Andromeda galaxy,
and more than fifty dwarf galaxies, it’s a part of “The Local Group”; a region of space about ten million light years
in diameter. It is one of the hundreds of galaxy groups in
the “Laniakea Supercluster”, which, itself is only one of millions
of superclusters, that make up the observable universe. Now, let’s assume, for a moment, that
we have a glorious future; humanity becomes a type three civilisation, does not get wiped out by aliens, and develops interstellar travel based on
our current understanding of physics. In this best case scenario,
how far could we possibly go? Well; the local group. It’s the biggest structure that humanity
will ever be a part of. While it’s certainly huge, the local group
accounts for only 0.00000000001 % of the observable universe. Let this number sink in for a moment. We are limited to a hundred billionth of
a percent of the observable universe. The simple fact that there is actually
a limit for us, and that there is so much universe that we will never
be able to touch, is kind of frightening. Why can’t we go further? Well, it all has to do with
the nature of nothing. Nothing, or empty space, isn’t empty
but has energy intrinsic to itself; so-called “quantum fluctuations”. On the smaller scale, there is
constant action, particles and antiparticles appearing and annihilating themselves. You can imagine this quantum vacuum as
a bubbling part: with denser, and less dense regions. Now, let’s go back 13.8 billion years
when the fabric of space consisted of nothing at all. Right after the big bang, in an event known
as cosmic inflation, the observable universe expanded from the size of a marble to
trillions of kilometres, in fractions of a second. This sudden stretching of the universe was
so fast and extreme, that all those quantum fluctuations were
stretched as well, and subatomic distances became
galactic distances, with dense and less dense regions. After inflation, gravity began to pull
everything back together. At the largest scale, the expansion was
too quick and powerful to overcome but in smaller scales,
gravity emerged victorious. So, over time, the denser regions,
or pockets, of the universe, grew into groups of galaxies, like the one
we live in today. Only stuff inside our pocket – The Local Group –
is bound to us gravitationally. But wait, what is the problem then? Why can’t we travel from our pocket,
to the next one? Here, dark energy makes everything complicated. About six billion years ago,
dark energy took over. It’s basically an invisible force or effect,
that causes, and speeds up the expansion of the universe. We don’t know why, or what dark energy is,
but we can observe its effect clearly. In the early universe, there were larger,
cold spots around the local group, that grew into clusters with thousands
of galaxies. We are surrounded by a lot of stuff,
but none of those structures and galaxies outside of the local group are gravitationally
bound to us. So the more the universe expands,
the larger the distance between us and other gravitational pockets becomes. Over time, dark energy will push the rest
of the universe away from us, causing all the other clusters, galaxies, and
groups to eventually become unreachable. The next galaxy group is already millions
of light years away, but all of them are moving away from us,
at speeds we can’t, ever, hope to match. We could leave the local group, and then
fly through intergalactic space, into the darkness, but we would never
arrive anywhere. While we will become more and more stranded,
the local group will become more tightly bound, and merge together to form one giant elliptical galaxy,
with the unoriginal name “Milkdromeda” in a few billion years. But it becomes even more depressing: at some point, the galaxies outside
the local group, will be so far away, that they will be too faint to detect, and the few
photons that do make it to us, will be shifted to such long wavelengths,
that they will be undetectable. Once this happens, no information outside
of the local group will be able to reach us. The universe will recede from view. It will appear to be dark and empty
in all directions, forever. A being born in the far future in
Milkdromeda, will think there is nothing but its own
galaxy in the entire universe. When they look far into empty space, they
will only see more emptiness and darkness; they won’t be able to see the
cosmic background radiation, and they won’t be able to learn about
the Big Bang. They will have no way of knowing
what we know today; the nature of the expanding universe,
where it began, and how it will end. They will think the universe is static and eternal. Milkdromeda will be an island in the darkness,
slowly getting darker and darker. But still, with its trillions of stars,
the local group is certainly large enough for humanity. After all, we still haven’t figured out
how to leave our solar system, and we have billions of years
to explore our galaxy. We have the incredible luck to exist at
the perfect moment in time to see, not only our future but also our
most distant past. As isolated and remote as the local group is,
we can perceive the entire universe, grand and spectacular as it is right now. This video was sponsored by Do you feel isolated in a humongous universe? Why not set up a website or blog
and share your thoughts with other humanoids around you? Squarespace lets you do that
with easy-to-understand tools very quickly and without any knowledge of web design. You can also use the code “NUTSHELL” to save
10 % and support Kurzgesagt in making more videoes about our place
in the universe. Thanks so much for the help with the video
to Ethan Siegel. Follow his astronomy blog here. You can support us directly at Patreon
or get Kurzgesagt merch here. It really helps. It is awesome that you watched this far,
so we have made a playlist for you about more universe stuff. Subtitles made by Sebastian Winkelmann Subtitles by the community

100 thoughts on “How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.”

  • Emptiness is made of a orientation, similar to presence. As it's the dead pressence of the time spent, lives who have died, but it seems to weakly bonded for that, but maybe.

  • Reality is however, is a sad natural life, with almost complete solitude of indeviduals, but in the way of being alone. Rather the seperation from others, maybe even by choice. But the possessioning of others in groups, or not. In a progressive invasive psychological and physical alteration and influence. Creating cascading qautities of indeviduals. Solitarily, they may produce living varients, as the psychological data and all data, varies in to reality. In it's original and, or varied form. But psychologically changes in to varients of grown indeviduals, orientated to the fiendish development from it's lust of it or others. The appearance in general, in the world, known orientations of lust, or maybe incorrect orientations, with a starvation of lust as a result. Leading the to find a source of lust, to heal their fiendish heart. However the mention of lust in it's natural form, was the cause. But the rest are not starving of the fiends birth, or life. But the body of their mind, or life, kills them. Because of the insane despiration of their personality. Perpetually creating a stressful situation. It could even perpetually grow more stressful. But they are also self critical and suicidal. Due to their psychologically desperate psychology. As it is a fiend, developing in it's natural form of lust. Such as action, glory, control, dominion and domination. Not necessarily all feild of lusts category. But the body of all living things from reality naturally, has a living body, and the fiends may have affected the body. But the body is a life, and can act on it's own free will, or will, and maybe it's body or it's possibilities and it's possible future. But all of that kind is alive, and free will is only a life which has reached a point of self control, possibly. And the body of the now dead fiend, now is developing in to another fiend, but it is bending the world in a twisting of all things it can, in a perversion of the world and life.

  • Physically, the personality, would effect the form and form connections to the world, as a stated specific pysonification. Evolved or specialised, but not necessarily beneficial.

  • Living things of reality. Could hold free will, which is not orientated to a subject or objective, but to itself, as a Brocken one, who is not bad or evil, and is good at least, not necessarily really good, but normally good. Could create another with free will, but it may not be free will, and should it lose it, it may be unable to redevelope it. As well as the environment being to difficult to overcome. As perception is a state observation which becomes a possessive or a source of possession. And may destabilise the continuous generation of variability, from the body and the life, as well as the world and everything, in all respects. Like time, but variability can occur in relation to the gestation of it all as well. The gestation is the gestating of it, or in relation to it. However I was referring to everything, and it happens to all of them continuously.

  • Reality variable possibility. Is in relation to possibility, as the mathematical references as a possible stimulus. But shapes revolving around a possition, could stimulate a birth. The first on is a stimulus of possibility, so I'm not sure.

  • What I meant with space may hold electricity unrelated to solar winds, which could prove plasma cosmology. I checked a urlier video, some are mis gramered and incorrectly sentenced.

  • The bodies and world of reality, is alive, and at all times is completely alive and a life of it's own. At all times.

  • The individuals of reality, of the good indeviduals, may develop insanity, as the personality of live in all respects, are proceeding data, to a subject and subjective effect, possibly developing it's free will, but it may not. But it looks like it can, but it would develop from the insanity stage, where fiends were made, in the computing and development from data. But all influences of reality, would be in play. As a natural birth part of them, as they are reality based life. But possiblity is a raw influence. However, the natural life of reality, and possibly all reality, is a natural form of possibility. And a natural possibility form and possibility, as a possibility form. So not necessarily limited by possibility's limiting. But possibility is a naturally raw orientation, and will be manipulative and controlling, or possibly nurturing, responsible, and could have been a overseer, over all reality and everything else. But maybe their manipulation, self assurment, or ideology to persuade the life of reality. But resistance, may have led to possession. And other worlds, may have been treated gently, in a way that doesn't seem possible, to encourage, but not interfere.

  • The life in reality, may be able to detach the inner natural connections like. Like pysonifications and kill the possibility creature. But, to end it, the possibility anomaly, would have to be ended permanently and irreversibly. But reality is powerful, shape, to fabricate, power to bend and break other sibling physics. And even breaking the world, possibly. Because they quite possibly could. But in comparison to energy, they are very different, and have a forward power, both physically reserved, and are potentials. However, energy and reality are able to obsorb and matabolise the attacks, but reality is able to change structures and end it. But energy in concentrated states, might be capable of self revival. With potentially no one noticing. Even the environmental differences, may not effect the university at all. However, if it was deliberately countered by reality, or changed, or cut in to prices, may still recover. With a lot more time spent re assembling, un cursing, and acclimatising. As the peices, may have become independent, lives, instead of the original life. But in the case of not being in a concentrated state, it would take a potentially long time, as any potential effect, could take potentially any amount of time. But it could potentially be ended, but it may be able to find those that have been supposedly erased. So one single life, can possibly, fix the world each time, like new, and maybe, no one in the universe, would ever know. Even energy, as physics may have a response in some way. That affects energy in general or specifically.

  • I would like to state, that was all me, creating these Koell Woolner comments, except maybe the one that didn't make sense. Mystery.

  • Comment 80 ish. p.s. top comments are viewed, not the newest or in order, due to automatic filter located just above the comments. You can change the filter to newest first. However I have sent the theory for a limitless resource to two previous prime minister's of the uk at the end of their reghns, but I am terrible with the internet and computers. Although they were scemey with a agenda for uk advantage, in retaining lost local resources and the united kingdom ss s hole. And the theory I'm pretty sure was my idea, but I forgot, and run my dad through it to remember, my mind is temperamental.

  • This kinda sounds like "There is a problem we cant solve with our current knowledge, so the problem must be unsolvable and the task impossible". This imho just throws away the fact that humanity is making progress. Im not saying that we will 100% reach other galaxy groups, but to say its impossible seems more like an assumption to me, after all we never know how exactly humanity will progress.

  • if they would believe there is nothing but empty space in the future. then what did we miss from the past that we cant perceive any more?

  • Dont forget to change the coments filter located above.
    Brocken young of reality, can't handle intamacy directly, as the child's insanity, caused by the environmental pressence and unfortunate physical physiology. And could cause invariable discomfort, changing to the experienced subject and contortioning to it. However, if something is close or effective enough, it may cause the creature to die. By accidental movement, bodies will, or maybe the influence of possibility as a young of reality or natural raw possibility. With the potential of being the reason for reality creature absence, if that was a question. And it may cause reality body complications of will and revolution and war

  • I have probably lived my life during the best of times. I am not a tree hugger, not a liberal, but I see oil being depleted from the earth and everything and everyone becoming unglued. I think things will start going downhill fast after 2050.

  • The limit of humanity is unlimited.
    But when there are limits then those limits will be broken. To venture into the unknown. To reach out and touch the star's. To travel and pioneer new frontiers where no human has ever gone.

  • If it is the case that people born in the future would have no knowledge of what we know now about the Big Bang and other such things, then it wouldn’t be outside the realm of reason that we are missing a section of the universe’s past that is not observable to us. Now that’s scary.

  • "Based on our current understanding of physics" – I suspect that will change in the future and open up all sorts of possibilities. I don't find any of this depressing at all – the more we understand things the more we can engineer things and that includes the universe itself

  • I wish the comment section would have more serious discussions in these videos rather than posting unoriginal jokes.. I would really like to know how fast ( theoretically FTL) we need to go to reach next local group?

  • All of this according to the knowledge that we have so far…one couldn't possibly predict the advances in science that might come in the future…the next 100 years are decisive for the mankind, if we manage to not self destruct in the meantime, I think nothing could stand in our way to discover the whole universe…remember, challenge everything

  • what if this human race were outside this box and somehow went thru a worm hole or had some quontom crap or gama shit covering them and then reached earth and caused the mas extention annd evolved to be dumb on earth and now humans made furry porn

  • So there must've been other observable phenomena which was observable a million years ago and now we won't be able to get anything out of it anymore because it'll all fizzle out in the end anyway? NICE.

  • If the big crunch theory is correct the entire human race will technically be within Planck lengths of anything in the universe

  • wayne wayo aveyard says:

    what about if the big bang wasn't what we thought it was, we see it the start of the universe. but what IF the big bang happens all the time but the universe is just that big we don't detect it. like going into a massive cave with a candle, we only see a little part of the cave that our candle light – lights up. but then if we was to switch a light on to light the full cave up we would see that there are millions of people inside doing the same thing with little candles thinking they are the only ones who are in that cave, alone, at the centre of it. so just maybe, we just aren't thinking big enough.

  • im pretty sure in billions of years we will have managed to modify our bodies so that we can travel with lightspeed and explore em all

  • But what if the actual universe is actually a much bigger one but had expanded so far we cant detect others outside our local group (the now observable universe)? This is depressing

  • Converging energy could be made by small kinetic energy sources, and venting the energy, with additions of objects to concentrate the energy into manifesting into material forms, but to also create insulative or insulation matter. Insulating the installation, with tech that we already have, but it's risky and rewarding if it works. It may form a soul like material, it's really good, the infinity end game. Except the black widow demise, technically it was not him sacrificing her, no sacrifice, except gamora was made in the movies. Also time travel, not a changeable timeline, however the other stones would have changed that, instabalisation of reality and more. But I have tinkered, and considered twins/natural diverse anomalies of the physiology and physics. But only 3 order, Chaos, and spirit, and 6 or 7 possible suites for the the whole collection of ideas. World and infinity stones. although DC comics have similar references for other natural forces ideas. Death, sandman, and 1 or 2 unknowns. I'm still referencing the potentially natural world, however, it's not likely to work, but maybe. Maybe it already is who knows. Maybe life, if something like that exists.

  • If the kinetic energy stabalises after, maybe it could be beneficial to build it in a remote location, with environmental distractions and distance, for the time it takes the potential soul, body and anything else to potentially form a containerment. As it !ay produce life, and it may find humanity a interesting idea to pursue.

  • My theory was that energy was orderly and constructive, creating life and a home for life. making good, light, virtue, order and constructional. As a creative physiological orientation, having a more extensive physiology. Reality with the opposite, behaving chaotic and destructive, capitalising on all that exists, perverting and capable of transitioning things from the world, through reality. Creatingting a kind of natural heaven/for energy and order or light and hell/for reality and chaos or darkness. Soul being orientated to life by self sustaining life, like belief, appearing potentially like a star. But the spirit is orientated to matter, architecturing matter and structure from the whispers of potentially mother nature's indescression of effecting nature minutely.the spirit is spiritually materialistic, creating structure from its materialistic orientation, but soul is materialistically a membrane, but like beleif. Spirits have a defect though, through developing from sinister orientation, it may become very perverted and evil, as a desperate fiend. Many variables exist, leading to evil and other badness, in maybe all, but maybe not. Who knows.

  • Kurzgesagt probably won't see this but there is still possibility of going to the other groups. We still don't know the exact limits of technology. There might be technology that pops up that we never knew about or dreamed and thought about. I know that this video is just based on what know, understand, and theorized. Also I really love your videos being informational and stuff but I'm just saying we probably don't know what the limits of humanity and what we can do in the universe or multiverse.

  • Ryan Schwinghammer says:

    So is that why there could have been ancient aliens long ago, but not any now anymore? Every second that goes by. Every instant of time, including the time it took you to read this far into my comment… the universe expanded more. We keep getting further and further away from everything else in the universe. So maybe the more time that goes by, there’s less of a chance we will ever encounter an alien species.

  • Karl Johan Ahlefeldt says:

    I think that if we become a galactic civilization, it would probably be enough. 100.000 light years of territory sounds good too me. Not that I ain’t more ambitious then that, but the milky way is just a big deal…

  • so black holes, big bang, dark energy and empty space you say? 😀 I liked your videos from the begining but now you are taking theories and presenting them as facts….you can say that mentioned informations are not validated by scientific experiments and are just few of many theories …

  • What if our observable universe is a small island of light in an ocean of darkness, much like the local group in the video? Imagine what could be out there.

  • wrong dude. things are not moving away from us faster then the speed of light so all we have to do is learn to travel x times faster then that limit, and we can get our selves anywhere. folding space comes to mind. might take us a million years but im sure we will manage .

  • Heaven and hell, a angel recruits a warlocj boy, by bringing him to thr gates of heaven and drops him to hell, where the castle lies. I was 16. Me and somonelse had a competition to see who was a better writer, he sugested and sort of demanded it to be a sdaptation of a person goes on a tour of hell, but it may have also been heaven. I dont play by rules. He could have one, but he chose a judge which saw 2 pages, and after reading it, dae 7 ot 12+, choosing 2 but she seemed to have like it. Later the science teacher read his and liked it, and may have liked his better. Aldo pointing out my rap ing mis spelling, incorect number of p letter and a rude word is spelt. I wrote heaven and hell, based on and potentially in reference to energy and reality who if real are literally family. In a way. School was where I wrote it. College was the cause of my deep thought, something special I didn't get. However it wasn't mine to have and it's right that it wasn't. But my stories clicked on to science, but also supernaturally orientated things, like hell. God was a tyrant to the world in my story, as lucifer broke the seals that bound the cjildren of life. Heaven, hell purgatory, nutrility good, evil, light, darkness, death, life, no longer know. Maybe its purgatory, the soul/spirit, it is virus like, a insane or non insane creature able to insert it's conciousness in of the body and brain. The only issue was the power to take over, but if it was it, everything would be changed to it's specifications and taken control of. Spirits are pychologically and physiologically various. Making it a perfect comparible specimen. And purgatory is wild and disturbing. Cutting of Lucifer's wings, and stitching them back on, eating angels, and jumping from angel to angel, killing them as he did. I was 19+. I listened to my mum back then, and deleted the progress, but I still have the beginning and some more, if it is not the begining. But if it is possible to retrieve such data. It may still exist. Viruses do not necessarily have such nature's.

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